Medical samples being taken from test tray.

The Discipline of Histopathology and Morbid Anatomy teaching syllabus for undergraduate medical students is listed below. Our teaching syllabus over second and third year covers both general pathology (the principles of disease processes) and systematic pathology (specific diseases affecting individual body systems or organs).

Second Year 

The discipline co-ordinates together with Clinical Medicine (Molecular Medicine) discipline the second year medicine module MDU22007 Molecular Mechanisms of Disease and Personalised Medicine (10ECTS).
The overall objective of this module is to empower students with the knowledge of the essential aspects of pathological processes and molecular mechanisms of disease development, and to enable them to apply this information in a clinical environment for improved diagnostic approaches and better treatment of the patients.

  • The principles of general pathology, focusing upon aetiology and cause, pathogenesis, morphologic changes, functional derangements, and clinical Significance.
  • Integration of molecular and cellular biology in relation to human diseases
  • Operation of the human genome at a molecular level, particularly in relation to the mechanisms of disease development
  • Pathological and molecular basis of common human malignancies (cancer), cardiovascular, psychiatric and degenerative diseases
  • Pathological and molecular mechanisms of human host and microbial pathogens interactions
  • Contemporary technologies for analysis of human molecular and cellular functions and their dysregulation in disease
  • Applications of these technologies in clinical practice
  • Use of knowledge on the molecular basis of human disease for the development  of novel therapies, including pharmacological agents or gene therapy

Examples of topics to be addressed include:

  • Cell injury
    • Causes
    • Types
    • Responses
  • Cell Death
    • Necrosis
    • Apoptosis
  • Cellular Adaptations
  • Intracellular accumulations and Ageing
  • Acute and Chronic inflammation
  • Interrelationship between inflammation and cancer
  • Healing
  • Haemodynamic Disorders:
  • Thrombosis and Shock
  • Genetic Disorders
  • Diseases of immune system
  • Neoplasia

Third Year 

Lectures are provided to the third medical year in Laboratory and Investigate Medicine. Lectures are posted on blackboard before delivery of the lectures and are available to students to download. Throughout the third medical year, laboratory rotations in histopathology are organised for students at the Central Pathology Laboratory, St James Hospital and at the Pathology Department at Tallaght University Hospital.

Fourth Year 

Lectures and tutorials to the Fourth Medical Year on Medical Jurisprudence, Ethics & Professionalism.

2nd Medical Year - Molecular Mechanisms of Disease and Personalised Medicine
Trinity Term
Paper 1: Essay and SAQ Examination 50%
Paper 2: MCQ Examination    50%


3rd Medical Year – Laboratory & Investigative Medicine


Michaelmas Term


Paper I Single Best Fit and Extended Matching Questions


Hiliary Term  
Prior Disclosure Essay 15%



Trinity Term


Paper III Short Answer Questions


Paper III Single Best Fit and Extended Matching Questions


Clinico-Pathological Cases (CPC)  


The Supplemental Examination (August) will have the same format as the Michaelmas Term Examinations




4th Medical Year – Medical Jurisprudence, Ethics & Professionalism.


Short Answer Questions and essay




General Pathology

  • Causes of cell injury.
  • Reversible and irreversible cell injury.
  • Mechanisms of cell injury: general biochemical mechanisms, hypoxia/ischaemia/reperfusion injury, free radical-induced cell injury, mechanisms of ionising radiation, chemical and viral-induced cell injury.
  • Structural changes of reversible and irreversible cell injury, macroscopic, microscopic and ultrastructural appearances.
  • Necrosis: definition, types of necrosis, including gangrene sequalar.
  • Apoptosis: definition, causes, morphology and mechanisms.
  • Systemic effects of cell injury.
  • Autolysis and post mortem changes.

  • Growth disturbances: atrophy, hypertrophy, hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia.
  • Subcellular alterations: lysosomes, endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and cytoskeletal changes. Heat shock proteins.
  • Intracellular accumulations: fatty change, cholesterol and cholesterolesters, proteins, glycogen.
  • Pigments: exogenous and endogenous. Lipofuscin, melanin, haemosiderin, bilirubin, haematin.

  • Pathology of collagen, elastin, basement membranes.
  • Amyloid.
  • Pathological calcification; dystrophic and metastatic.
  • Uric acid deposition.

Factors known to affect life span; common diseases of old age; theories to explain the ageing process.


  • Definition; causes, difference between inflammation and infection.
  • Acute inflammation. Definition, classical clinical features. Vascular and cellular events. Chemical mediators. Special macroscopic appearances in certain tissues. Abscess formation. Beneficial and harmful effects of inflammation. Sequelae. The lymphatic system in inflammation. Systemic effects. Defects in the inflammatory response.
  • Chronic inflammation. Definition. Causes of chronic inflammation; primary causes and as a sequel to acute inflammation. Cells of chronic inflammation; central role of the macrophage. Chemical mediators.
  • Granulomatous inflammation: definition of a granuloma; causes; morphology. Special macroscopic appearances in certain tissues. Chronic ulceration. Sequelae.

Healing, Regeneration & Repair

  • Healing by regeneration with complete restitution.
  • Labile, stable and permanent cells. Stem cells.
  • Healing by repair (+ - regeneration) with scar formation.
  • Organisation by granulation tissue and fibrosis.
  • Molecular factors in the healing process: cell-cell interactions; the extracellular matrix and cell-matrix interactions; growth factors and cytokines.
  • Healing of skin wounds: healing by first intention, healing by second intention. Complications; contractures, keloid. Factors influencing wound healing.
  • Healing of bone fractures: organisation of haematoma, callus formation, lamellar bone formation, remodelling.
  • Factors affecting fracture healing. Complications of fractures.
  • Healing in the gastrointestinal tract, peritoneum and other tissue spaces, liver, kidney, muscle and neural tissue.

definition, fluid collections in body cavities. Pathophysiological categories of oedema. Morphology. Clinical importance.

Hyperaemia and congestion:
causes, morphology and clinical importance.

brief overview of causes, terminology and clinical significance.

definition, causes, effects on tissues and the modifying effects of duration of ischaemia, and differing susceptibilities of tissues. Clinical importance.


  • definition. Distinction from clot.
  • Components of a thrombus. Predisposing factors to thrombus formation. Virchow's triad. Morphology. Arterial thrombosis. Venous thrombosis. Thrombi on heart valves.

Fate of thrombi:

  • fibrinolysis, organisation, recanalisation, calcification.
  • Clinical effects of arterial and venous thrombosis.
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation.


definition, types, causes, common sites and effects.


  • definition, causes, morphology of infarcts, variations seen in different organs, organisation and repair.
  • Factors effecting the development of an infarct. Gangrene. Clinical importance.

definition, types of shock, causes, stages of shock, tissue changes in shock, clinical manifestations.


  • characteristics, clinical significance and detailed morphology of early and advanced lesions.
  • Epidemiology and risk factors.


role of endotheilial injury, inflammation, infection, disorded immunity, lipids and lipoproteins, fibrin and platelets, foetal events. Prevention.

  • Definition and terminology. Basic structure of neoplasms; neoplastic cells, stroma and angiogenesis.
  • Definition of benign and malignant tumours: characteristic differences, especially in terms of differentiation, growth rate, local invasion and metastases. Gross appearance of tumours and correlation with behaviour. Classification of neoplasms by histogenesis (cell of origin).
  • Nomenclature of neoplasms. Differentiation from hamartomas, choristomas and cysts.
  • The biology of neoplasms: immortalisation, DNA abnormalities, mitosis and apoptosis in neoplasms, metabolic abnormalities.
  • The molecular basis of cancer: oncogenes, suppressor genes, regulatory genes of apoptosis, DNA repair genes. Growth signals and growth-inhibitory signals. Molecular basis of immortalisation. Molecular basis of angiogenesis. Molecular basis of invasion and metastases.
  • Carcinogenic agents:
    • chemicals, radiant energy, viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites.
    • Multistep hypothesis of carcinogenesis.
    • Epidemiology of cancer. Occupational and behavioural risks.
    • Host factors in carcinogenesis; age, gender, race, diet, inherited genomic instability, pre-malignant lesions and conditions.
    • Host defence, cell mediated and humoral immunity.

  • Clinical effects of neoplasia: local effects, general effects; cachexia and paraneoplastic syndromes.
  • Laboratory diagnosis; morphological techniques, excision/biopsy, fine-needle aspiration, cytology, immunocytochemistry, flow cytometry
    • biochemical assays for tumour markers
    • molecular diagnosis
    • DNA microarray analysis
  • Prognostic factors: type of tumour, grading and staging of tumours. Tumour dormancy.

Importance of infections & parasitic diseases.

  • Changing patterns; effects of travel, change in the environment, new infectious diseases.
  • Methods of identifying organisms in tissues.
  • Types of reaction in tissues to the presence of an organism. Interaction with hosts immune state.

General pathology of diseases caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites and prious.

Selected examples to illustrate mode of spread, tissue reaction, identification of organism in tissues, type of disease and host modifying factors.

Inhaled pollutants:

  • air pollution and occupational dust diseases (pneumoconiosis)*. 
    * (Covered in lectures on respiratory diseases).
  • Enumeration of diseases associated with smoking.

Chemical injury:

  • organic and inorganic compounds, metals, gases, toxic mushrooms.
  • The pathology of alcohol (covered in 4th medical year) and drug abuse.
  • Adverse reactions of therapeutic drugs.

Physical agents:

mechanical trauma, thermal injury, atmospheric pressure, electrical injury, ultraviolet light, ionising radiation injury (mechanisms and morphological changes, complications of radiotherapy, whole body radiation).

  • Causes and effects of malnutrition. Protein-energy malnutrition. Anorexia nervosa and bulimia.
  • Vitamin deficiencies and vitamin toxicity.
  • Trace elements and disease.
  • Obesity and its complications.


Systematic Pathology

Cardiac failure: definition and common causes in adults.
Pathophysiology and clinicopathological features.

Ischaemic heart disease: coronary artery atherosclerosis.
Angina pectoris. Myocardial infarction, pathogenesis, detailed gross and microscopic appearances including sequence of changes with time. Complications of myocardial infarction. Clinical features and possible outcomes. Laboratory evaluation.

Chronic ischaemic heart disease: morphology and clinical features.
Causes and morphology of sudden cardiac death.

Hypertension: definition, classification and causes.
Pathogenesis of essential hypertension. Effects of hypertension on the heart and blood vessels and the systemic effects.

Valvular disease: causes and clinicopathological features of mitral stenosis, mitral incompetence, aortic stenosis, aortic incompetence and tricuspid and pulmonary valve disease. Rheumatic fever and rheumatic heart disease.

Calcific aortic sterosis. Mitral valve prolapse ("floppy" valve).

Infective endocarditis: aetiology, morphology and complications. Clinical features, investigations and principles of treatment and prevention.

Non-infective endocarditis. Prosthetic valves and complications arising therefrom.

Primary myocardial disease: myocarditis and the cardiomyopathies.

Pericardial disease: pericarditis and effusions.

Tumours of the heart.

Congenital heart disease: atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, patent ductus arteriosus, coarctation of the aorta, tetralogy of Fallot, transposition of great vessels, congenital anomalies of valves and coronary arteries.

Vascular diseases (other than atherosclerosis): aneurysms, definition, types and causes, complications and clinical effects.
Dissection of the aorta and main branches. Vasculitis. Miscellaneous disorders (Monckeberg's sclerosis, fibromuscular dysplasia, Raynaud's disease).
Thrombophlelibitis, phlebothrombosis and varicose veins.
Superior and inferior vena caval obstruction syndromes.
Lymphangitis and lymphoedema.
Tumours and tumour-like lesions of vessels.

Pulmonary infections: community acquired acute pneumonia, community-acquired atypical pneumonia, nosocomial (hospital-acquired) pneumonia, aspiration pneumonia. Infections in the immunocompromised host. Lung abscess and its complications. Pulmonary tuberculosis.

Restrictive lung diseases and acute interstitial lung disease (adult respiratory distress syndrome, drug, toxin and radiation-induced injury) and chronic interstitial lung disease (pneumoconiosis, sarcoidosis, fibrosing alveolitis).

Obstructive pulmonary disease: chronic bronchitis, definition, aetiology and morphology.
Emphysema: definition, classification and morphology and aetiology of the different types.
Clinical effects of chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD). 
Respiratory failure: definition, types and causes. Bronchial asthma: characteristics, types, pathogenesis, morphology and clinical course.

Bronchiectasis: definition, causes, pathogenesis, morphology, clinical features and complications.
Collapse of the lung tissue (atelectasis): resorption, compression, contraction and microatelectasis.

Vascular disorders of the lung: thromboembolism and infarction, importance, pre-disposing conditions, pathophysiology, morphology and clinical course, Non-thrombotic emboli. 
Pulmonary haemorrhage. Pulmonary hypertension, causes, morphological changes, cor pulmonale.

Neoplasms of the lung: bronchiogenic carcinoma, importance, aetiology, morphology, histological classification, spread, clinical features, paraneoplastic phenomena, role of the laboratory in diagnosis, grading and staging, prognosis and treatment.
Other primary neoplasms, benign and malignant.
Metastatic lung tumours. Lymphangitis carcinomatosum.

Diseases of the pleura: pleurisy, effusions, fibrosis, pleural plaques, neoplasms.

Common diseases of the nasal passages, sinuses, middle ear and larynx.
Cysts in the neck.
Common diseases of the mouth, pharynx and salivary glands.


Congenital and mechanical disorders: atresia/fistula, achalasia, webs and benign strictures, diverticula, hiatus hernia, oesophageal varices, Mallory-Weiss syndrome. 
Oesophagitis: infective causes, reflux oesophagitis. Barrett's mucosa, metaplasia, dysplasia, carcinoma sequence. 
Carcinoma: geographic variation, aetiology and pathogenesis, morphology including histological types. Spread. Clinical features. Other tumours.


Congenital anomalies, pyloric stenosis. Acute gastritis, erosions and ulceration: causes, morphology and clinical features. Chronic gastritis - Helicobacter - associated gastritis, autoimmune gastritis, chemical and drug induced gastritis and other forms. Pathogenesis and morphology. Chronic peptic ulcer - sites, aetiology and pathogenesis, morphology and complications. Clinical features of gastritis and peptic ulceration. Carcinoma - geographic variation, aetiology, pre-malignant conditions, dysplasia-carcinoma sequence, morphology, including histological types. Spread. Clinical features. Lymphoma - mucosa - associated lymphoma (MALT). Other tumours - carcinoid tumour, gastric stromal tumours.


Congenital anomalies: atresia/stenosis, malrotation, duplication, Meckels' diverticulum, meconium ileus, Hirschprung's disease.
Malabsorption: causes of small intestinal malabsorption. Coeliac disease - aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology, complications and clinical features.
Diarrhoea: categorisation of causes - secretory, osmotic, exudative, malabsorptive and deranged motility. Infectious enterocolitis: global importance.
Bacterial infections: general morphological changes, features seen in Escherichia coli, Salmonella, Shigella, cholera, Clostridium difficile (antibiotic, associated colitis) and tuberculosis. Neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis. Viral infections. Parasitic infestations, giardiasis, amoebiasis, cryptosporidiosis.

Chronic inflammatory bowel disease: Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
Crohn's disease: morphology, gross and microscopic, complications, aetiology and pathogenesis, clinical features.
Ulcerative colitis: morphology, gross and microscopic, complications, local and systemic, aetiology and pathogenesis, clinical features.

Vascular disorders: ischaemic bowel disease, arterial occlusive and non-occlusive forms, venous occlusion. Morphology, complications and clinical features.

Diverticulosis: colonic diverticulosis, morphology, complications, aetiological factors and clinical features.
Intestinal obstruction: pathophysiology of small and large intestinal obstruction. Hernias, adhesions, intussusception, volvulus, tumours, strictures and pseudo-obstruction (paralytic ileus, bowel infarction, myopathies/neuropathies).

Intestinal polyps: definition of a polyp, benign epithelial types (adenoma, hyperplastic, inflammatory, hamatomatous) and malignant. Familial polyposis syndromes.

Colonic adenomas: morphology, gross and microscopic appearances, cancer risk related to size, grade of dysplasia, histological type. Clinical features.

Colorectal carcinoma: importance, epidemiology, aetiological factors and the adenoma - carcinoma sequence. Molecular pathology of the adenoma - carcinoma sequence. Morphology - gross appearances, differences between right and left sides of the colon. Microscopic appearances. Spread. Clinical features. 
Importance of grading and staging in prognosis (Duke's staging and TNM staging).

Other tumours of small and large intestine including carcinoid tumour and lymphoma.

Appendix. Acute appendicitis, aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology, complications.
Tumours - carcinoid, mucinous tumours.

Anus and anal canal Haemorrhoids, warts (condyloma acuminata and human papilloma virus), carcinomas and melanoma.

Peritoneum: peritonitis, effusions, adhesions, neoplasms (primary, secondary and pseudo, myxomatous peritonei).


Investigation of liver disease: biochemical (bilirubin, enzymes, albumin), haematological (clotting factors), immunological (viral antibodies/antigens, autoantibodies, immunoglobulins), liver biopsy (uses and limitations), imaging techniques.
Jaundice and cholestasis - definition, classification and mechanisms.

Liver failure: acute and chronic failure, causes, morphology, pathophysiology of hepatic encephalopathy and other features of liver failure. Laboratory investigations. Precipitating factors.

Cirrhosis: definition, morphology, pathogenesis, classification. Complications of cirrhosis including portal hypertension and its effects, liver failure and hepatocellular carcinoma.

Acute hepatitis. Causes. Acute viral hepatitis, clinical and laboratory features, histological appearances, possible outcomes. Pathogenesis, epidemiology and course of the different hepatotropic viruses.

Chronic hepatitis. Definition and classification according to aetiology. Clinical and laboratory features, histological appearances, grading of activity and staging of fibrosis of liver biopsy. Characteristics of chronic hepatitis due to the different hepatotropic viruses.

The liver in infectious diseases (non-hepatotropic viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites). Neonatal hepatitis.

Autoimmune hepatitis: clinical, immunological and morphological features. Outcomes.

Drugs, toxins and the liver: outline of the numerous manifestations of drug and toxin induced liver injury. Particular attention to acute cholestasis, cholestatic hepatitis , chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Alcoholic liver disease: importance, metabolic disturbances, fatty liver, alcoholic hepatitis and cirrhosis. Pathogenesis of and factors influencing alcoholic liver disease.

Iron overload. Classification. Genetic haemochromatosis: importance, genetics, pathogenesis, laboratory diagnosis, morphology and complications.

Metabolic disorders. Wilson's disease, alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, and other inborn errors of metabolism.

Biliary obstruction. Extrahepatic obstruction - causes, effects on the liver, complications.

Intrahepatic obstruction: primary biliary cirrhosis, primary sclerosing cholangitis. Other causes of acquired and congenital bile duct injury.

Circulatory disorders.
Occlusion of portal veins, hepatic veins and arteries. The liver in heart failure and shock. Classification and causes of portal hypertension.

Tumours and tumour-like lesions.
Benign, malignant and metastatic neoplasms.
Primary hepatocellular carcinoma - importance, geographic incidence, risk factors, environmental carcinogens, morphology, spread, diagnosis and prognosis.
Cholangiocarcinoma - geographical incidence, risk factors, morphology, spread, prognosis. Tumour like lesions and cysts.

The liver in systemic diseases. Liver transplantation and graft versus host disease.

Diseases of the gall-bladder and extrahepatic bile ducts.
Gall stones: types, aetiology and pathogenesis and risk factors. Clinical features and complications.
Acute cholecystitis: causes, morphology and complications.
Chronic cholecystitis: causes and morphology.
Cholesterolosis. Benign strictures of bile ducts.
Neoplasms of the gall-bladder and bile ducts.
Neoplasms of the peri-ampullary region. Congenital biliary tract anomalies.

Diseases of the exocrine pancreas.
Acute pancreatitis: aetiology and pathogenesis, morphology and complications. Clinical features and laboratory diagnosis. Chronic pancreatitis: aetiology and pathogenesis, morphology. Clinical features.
Carcinoma of the pancreas: importance, aetiology and pathogenesis, morphology and spread. Clinical features and prognosis. Cysts and cystic neoplasms. Congenital anomalies; cystic fibrosis.


Clinical manifestations of renal disease. The pathology of renal failure. Glomerular diseases - classification, aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology and clinical cause of the various forms of primary glomerular disease. Chronic glomerulonephritis.
The glomeruli in systemic disorders, vascular disorders and hypertension. Renal infarction. Acute cortical necrosis. Renal transplantation. Tubulo-interstitial diseases. Acute pyelonephritis - aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology, complications and clinical course.
Chronic pyelonephritis: aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology and clinical course. Renal tuberculosis. Acute tubular necrosis. Interstitial nephritis. Analgesic nephropathy. Congenital and cystic disease of the kidney.

Urinary outflow obstruction.

Renal stones: pathogenesis, morphology and clinical course. Hydronephrosis - causes, morphology and clinical course.

Bladder & ureters.

Inflammation, obstruction, calculi and congenital lesions.

Neoplasms of the kidney and urinary tract.

Renal cell carcinoma: aetiology, types, morphology, spread, paraneoplastic syndromes, clinical features. Wilm's tumour. Transitional cell carcinoma of bladder and collecting system. Aetiology, morphology, spread, grading and staging and clinical course of bladder carcinoma.

Prostate Gland.

Prostatitis: acute and chronic.
Benign nodular hyperplasia: incidence, aetiology, morphology, complications and clinical features.
Prostate carcinoma: incidence, aetiology, symptomatic & latent forms, morphology, spread, grading and staging.
Clinical features, diagnosis and principles of therapy.
Screening for prostatic carcinoma.


Cryptorchidisim, hydrocoele, haematocoele, torsion and orchitis.
Neoplasms of the testis. Aetiology, classification and histogenesis. Morphology and spread.
Clinical features, staging, assay of tumour markers and principles of therapy.

Cysts, spermatocoele, epididymo - orchitis.

Penis and Scrotum
Congenital anomalies, inflammations including sexually transmitted diseases, venereal warts, carcinoma of the penis and scrotum.
Causes of male infertility.

Sexually transmitted and other infections. Condyloma. Cysts. Non-neoplastic epithelial lesions. Neoplastic epithelial lesions. Paget's disease.


Vaginitis and neoplasms.

Uterine Cervix
Cervicitis. Polyps.
Cervical squamous carcinoma - importance, changing incidence, epidemiology, aetiology and pathogenesis.
Cervical intra-epithelial neoplasia - morphology.
Invasive carcinoma - morphology, spread and staging.
Cytology screening programmes. Clinical course. Glandular neoplasia of the cervix.

Uterine corpus.
The normal endometrium and menstrual cycle. Endometritis, endometriosis, adenomyosis and endometrial hyperplasia. Iatrogenic changes in the endometrium. Causes of dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Endometrial polyps. Endometrial carcinoma - importance, epidemiology and pathogenesis, morphology and spread. Clinical course. Endometrial stromal sarcoma and mixed Mullerian tumour. Leiomyomas of the myometrium - importance, morphology and clinical features. Leiomyosarcoma. Diseases of the Fallopian tubes. Pelvic inflammatory disease.

Follicle development. Follicular, luteal and other non-neoplastic cysts. Polycystic ovary syndrome. Stromal hyperplasia and luteinization.
Neoplasms: importance and classification.
Epithelial neoplasms: sub-classification, benign, borderline and malignant forms.
Morphology, spread and complications. Pathogenesis including genetic susceptibility. Germ cell tumours, sex cord stromal tumours and metastatic tumours. Clinical features, tumour markers and therapy of ovarian neoplasms.

Female Infertility.

Pathology of Pregnancy
Placental inflammations and infections. Pre-eclampsia and eclampsia - placental changes and multi-organ changes. Post partum haemorrhage. Pathology of the full term placenta. Gestational trophoblastic disease - hydatidiform mole, complete and partial, invasive mole, choriocarcinoma.
Epidemiology, morphology and clinical outcomes.
Tumour markers.
Pathology of umbilical cord and membranes.
Ectopic pregnancy.
Maternal death.

Development and developmental abnormalities. Structure, cyclical changes, pregnancy and lactation, involution.
Inflammatory conditions: infections, duct ectasia, fat necrosis.
Proliferative conditions: fibrocystic change, terms, incidence, aetiology and pathogenesis, morphology, including histological types.
Significance of proliferative lesions, especially atypical hyperplasia.
Benign neoplasms: fibroadenoma, duct papilloma, adenoma.
Malignant neoplasms: Breast carcinoma - importance, risk factors, pathogenesis - genetic, hormonal and environmental factors. Morphology, macroscopic and microscopic types and appearances.
In-situ and invasive carcinoma.
Paget's disease of the nipple. Spread of breast carcinoma. Prognostic factors - type, histological grade, stage, hormone receptors, growth kinetics.
The clinical features of breast diseases and their pathological basis.
Diagnostic methods - fine needle aspiration cytology, core biopsy, frozen section, mammography and ultrasound. Screening for breast cancer.
Diseases of the male breast - gynaecomastia and carcinoma.

General principles of disease of the endocrine system - hyperfunction, hypofunction, benign and malignant tumours, interdependence of the glands, multiple involvement by tumours and autoimmune diseases.

Adenohypophysis - hyperfunction and adenomas. Types of adenomas. Effects of excess hormone secretion. Pressure effects of adenomas. Hypopituitarism - pituitary dwarfism, ischaemic necrosis (including Sheehan/Simmond post-partum necrosis), iatrogenic causes, neoplasms. Posterior hypophysis - diabetes insipidus and inappropriate ADH secretion.

Pineal Gland


Hyperthyroidism. Systemic effects of thyrotoxicosis. 
Grave's disease: pathogenesis and morphology. Other causes thyrotoxicosis - functioning adenoma and toxic nodular goitre. Hypothryoidism. Myxoedema and cretinism. Hashimotos's thyroiditis - pathogenesis, morphology and risk of lymphoma. Other forms of thyroiditis. Iatrogenic causes of hypothyroidism. Goitre - definition, classification, morphology and causes. Solitary nodules - investigation including diagnostic imaging and fine-needle aspiration cytology. Neoplasms. Adenoma. Carcinomas - classification, pathogenesis including genetic and environmental factors and pre-existing thyroid disease. Morphology of the different types, spread, and clinical features including differences in prognosis. Lymphoma of the thyroid.

Primary hyperparathyroidism: causes (especially adenoma), morphology of the parathyroids and other organs, molecular pathology and clinical features.
Secondary hyperparathyroidism: causes, morphology, clinical features and tertiary hyperparathyroidism. Hypoparathyroidism: causes and clinical effects.

Hypercorticolism (Cushing's syndrome): causes, morphology, clinical effects and diagnosis.
Hyperaldosteronism (Conn's syndrome): causes, morphology, clinical effects and diagnosis.
Adrenogenital syndromes.
Adrenal cortical insufficiency (Addison's disease and Waterhouse - Friderichsen syndrome) - causes, morphology and clinical effects.
Neoplasms of the adrenal cortex.
Neoplasms of the adrenal medulla.
Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndromes.

The Endocrine Pancreas.

Diabetes mellitus: importance, classification, pathogenesis, morphology and pathogenesis of complications, clinical features.
Islet cell tumours.

Lymph Nodes
The functional anatomy of lymph nodes. Non-specific reactive hyperplasia. Morphology and causes of follicular hyperplasia, paracortical hyperplasia and sinus histiocytosis. Lymphadenitis, non-specific and specific forms.
Lymphomas. Hodgkin's disease - classification and morphology. Clinical features, staging and survival. Non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, including extranodal lymphomas - classification, morphology, molecular pathology and prognostic factors.

Causes of splenomegaly. Hypersplenism. Splenic atrophy. Splenic infarction. Splenic rupture. Congenital anomalies.

Hyperplasia and thymomas.
Muskuloskeletal System

Osteoporosis: definition, importance, classification, pathogenesis, morphology, clinical features, complications and prevention and treatment.
Rickets and osteomalacia: definition, pathogenesis, morphology and diagnosis, prevention and treatment. Bone disease in hyperparathyroidism and renal disease.
Osteomyelitis: aetiology, morphology, clinical features and complications.
Paget's disease of bone: incidence, epidemiology, pathogenesis, morphology and complications. Congenital and hereditary conditions.
Bone neoplasms and tumour-like lesions: classification, morphology and principles of diagnosis.

Osteoarthritis: importance, pathogenesis, morphology and clinical features.
Rheumatoid arthritis - aetiology, pathogenesis, morphology and clinical features including extra-articular manifestations.
Gout and "pseudogout". Ankylosing spondylitis.
Arthropathies occurring in other diseases.
Degenerative disease of intervertebral discs.
Infective arthritis.

Skeletal muscle.
Muscle atrophy, myasthenia gravis, myositis and muscular dystrophies.

Soft tissue.
Tumours and tumour-like lesions of soft tissue.

The vocabulary of skin diseases: clinical and histological terms. Principles of skin biopsy.
Acute inflammatory dermatoses: urticaria, dermatititis and erythema multiforme.
Chronic inflammatory dermatoses: psoriasis and lichen planus.
Bullous diseases: pemphigus, bullous pemphigoid and dermatitis herpetiformis.
Common benign epithelial tumours. Squamous and basal cell carcinoma - aetiology, clinical features and morphology.
Naevi and dysplastic naevi. Malignant melanoma - environmental and genetic aetiological factors, morphology, staging, spread and clinical features.

Intracranial space-occupying lesions - causes of diffuse and focal brain swelling. Consequences of raised intracranial pressure.

Central nervous system trauma: missile and non-missile head injury - mechanisms, morphological appearances, clinical features and outcomes. Spinal cord injury.
Cerebrovascular disease: hypoxic/ischaemic damage.
Strokes: infarction, pathogenesis and morphology.
- intra-cranial and subarachnoid haemorrhage - pathogenesis and morphology.
Effects of hypertension.

Infections. Bacterial: meningitis and brain abscess. Tuberculosis and syphilis. Viral - meningitis and encephalitis. Latent and persistent viral infections. Human immunodeficiency virus. Prior diseases - spongiform encephalopathies. Fungal and parasitic diseases.
Infections in immunosuppressed patients.

Demyelinating conditions. Multiple sclerosis - epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features and morphology. Miscellaneous demyelinating conditions. Toxic, metabolic and nutritional deficiency states. Congenital malformations and peri-natal brain injury.
Age-related changes in the CNS.
Degenerations: Alzheimer's disease and related disorders, causing dementia.
Parkinson's disease. Huntington's disease. Motor neurone disease.

Neoplasms: classification. Clinicopathological features. Characteristics of the various types of intrinsic and extrinsic tumours. Metastatic tumours.
Peripheral nervous system: reaction to injuries, neuropathies and neoplasms.