Three steps are involved:
Deposition → Patterning → Characterization
Thin Film Deposition
Our thin film deposition is usually carried out by sputtering in the new 'Trifolium Dubium' multichamber tool, which has interconnected chambers devoted to metal or oxide films, molecular beam epitaxy, pulsed laser deposition and X-ray analysis. The system was installed in the CRANN cleanroom in 2019. We also operate our older 'Shamrock' multichamber tool which was originally used to make spin valve stacks for read heads in the 1990s. In addition, e-beam and thermal evaporation (Temescal FC-2000; CRANN) and electrodeposition are also used to make oxide or metallic films, and pulsed-laser deposition (Prof James Lunney’s lab) is most useful for oxides. A separate UHV system is devoted to evaporating organic films and metals.
Patterning Thin Films into Devices
Patterning involves lithography and etching. We use the the OAI UV mask aligner or the Heidelberg DWL66 laser writer with a 405 nm laser for optical lithography and mask fabrication. A SUPRA scanning electron microscope with Raith software or the Elionix 7700 dedicated e-beam writer are used for electron-beam lithography (all in CRANN). The pattern written in a resist layer is transferred to the thin film stack by Ar-ion etching in a Millatron, otherwise the resist is dissolved in a lift-off process.
The crystal structures are determined by X-ray diffraction. Surface and magnetic imaging characterization is carried out with by AFM techniques. Magnetic properties are studied by SQUID or vibrating-sample magnetometry in a 14T PPMS which can also be used for Andreev reflection and magneto-transport. Electical measurements are are usually of dc conductivity or Hall effect in an R:T rig with a 5T magnet. We also have facilities for rf characterization, up to 20 GHz.
Contact Gwenael Atcheson
 Reduced low frequency noise in electron beam evaporated MgO magnetic tunnel junctions, Diao Z, Feng JF, Kurt H, and Coey J.M.D. Applied Physics Letters, 96, 202506 (2010).
 Influence of growth and annealing condiions on low-frequency magnetic 1/f noise inMgO magnetic tunnl junctions, Jiafeng Feng, Zhu Diao, H. Kurt, N, R. Stearrett, A. Singh, E. R. Nowak and J. M. D. Coey. J. Appl. Phys. 112 093913 (2012).
 Strategies for fabrication nanogap single-crystal organic transistors, A. Alborgetti, P. Stamenov, G. Fois and J. M. D. Coey, ISRN Nanotechnology 253246 (2012)