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Recent Student Peer-Reviewed Publications


2018

Collins SD, Leech MM. A review of plan library approaches in adaptive radiotherapy of bladder cancer. Acta Oncologica. 2018; 3:1-8.
https://doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2017.1420908 
Large variations in the shape and size of the bladder volume are commonly observed in bladder cancer radiotherapy (RT). The clinical target volume (CTV) is therefore frequently inadequately treated and large isotropic margins are inappropriate in terms of dose to organs at risk (OAR); thereby making adaptive radiotherapy (ART) attractive for this tumour site. There are various methods of ART delivery, however, for bladder cancer, plan libraries are frequently used. This review provides an update on the literature in this area.

Cvetkova J, O’Donovan T, Craig A, Mullaney L. Radiation therapists’ compliance to a palliative imaging protocol: a case report. Journal of Radiotherapy in Practice. 2018; Jan:1-4.
doi:10.1017/S1460396917000723 
Imaging protocols are implemented to identify and minimise set-up errors. A crucial component to the success of these protocols is staff compliance. This is case report describing a retrospective review of radiation therapists’ compliance to a palliative imaging protocol in a single large institution in one calendar year.

Percival C, Landy M, Poole C and Mullaney L, The role of Prophylactic Cranial Irradiation for Non- small Cell Lung Cancer, Anticancer Research 2018; 38 (1): 7 – 14
The use of prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) to treat brain metastases (BM) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is restricted due to the potential associated toxicity and lack of survival benefit. BM can have a negative impact on neurocognitive function (NF) and quality of life (QOL). The aim of this review was to assess the impact of PCI on disease-specific and NF and QOL outcomes. 

Linney H and Barrett S, Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy for Patients with Early-stage Prostate Cancer, Anticancer Research, 2018; 38, (3): 1231 – 1240
Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is emerging as a new treatment option for early-stage prostate cancer, theoretically providing clinical and economic benefits compared to conventionally fractionated external-beam radiation therapy (CF-EBRT). This review aimed to evaluate available published data to determine if the proposed theoretical benefits translate clinically.

Leonard S, O'Donovan A. Measuring safety culture: Application of the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture to radiation therapy departments worldwide. Practical radiation oncology. 2018;8(1):17-26.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2017.08.005 
Minimizing errors and improving patient safety has gained prominence worldwide in high-risk disciplines such as radiation therapy. Patient safety culture has been identified as an important factor in reducing the incidence of adverse events and improving patient safety in the health care setting. The aim of this study was to distribute the Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSPSC) to radiation therapy departments worldwide in order to assess the current status of safety culture, identify areas for improvement and areas that excel, examine factors that influence safety culture, and raise staff awareness.

2017

Lipsett A, Barrett S, Haruna F, Mustian K, O'Donovan A. The impact of exercise during adjuvant radiotherapy for breast cancer on fatigue and quality of life: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Breast. 2017 Apr;32:144-155. 
doi: 10.1016/j.breast.2017.02.002. Epub 2017 Feb 9.
The aim of this study was to assess the effect of exercise (and different exercise prescription parameters) during adjuvant RT on fatigue among breast cancer patients. Quality of life was a secondary outcome. Nine studies (802 participants) were included. The meta-analysis revealed that exercise was statistically more effective at reducing fatigue than the control intervention. Therefore, exercise during adjuvant RT should be encouraged in breast cancer patients. 

Glynn A, Forde E, Marignol L, Focal therapy: A treatment option for localized prostate cancer? Advances in Modern Oncology Research 2017; 3(6): 244–260 
Therapeutic options for localised prostate cancer (PCa) include active surveillance or radical whole-gland therapy. Men with localised PCa and the physicians who advise them are posed with a difficult therapeutic dilemma: which one? The former requires intensive surveillance causing possible psychological distress. The latter maximises chance of cure but with near certainty of genitourinary toxicity. Focal therapy (FT) is a technique by which only the known disease is targeted while preserving normal tissue. Early reports of FT outcomes are encouraging; however apprehension still exists over its standardised use in localised PCa. This review discusses the evidence regarding the oncologic and functional outcomes of focal therapies for localised prostate cancer

Duffy O, Forde E, Leech M, The dilemma of parotid gland and pharyngeal constrictor muscles preservation-Is daily online image guidance required? A dosimetric analysis. Medical Dosimetry 2017; 42 (1): 24-30
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meddos.2016.10.003 
With margin reduction common in head and neck radiotherapy, it is critical that the dosimetric effects of setup deviations are quantified. With past studies focusing on the quantification of positional and volumetric changes of organs at risk (OARs), this study aimed to measure the dose delivered to these the parotid gland (PG) and pharyngeal constrictor muscles (PCMs) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Furthermore, this investigation sought to establish a potential time trend of change in dose delivered to target volumes secondary to ascertaining the need for daily image guidance (IG) to reduce the dose burden to these important OARs. 

Lawler G, Leech M. Dose Sparing Potential of Deep Inspiration Breath-hold Technique for Left Breast Cancer Radiotherapy Organs-at-risk. Anticancer research. 2017 ;37 (2):883-90.
The aim of this study is to assess if deep inspiration breath-hold (DIBH) technique achieved dose sparing for organs-at-risk in left breast radiotherapy patients in order to reduce long-term complications.

Moore A and Forde E, A Dosimetric Evaluation of Threshold Bladder Volumes for Prostate Cancer Radiotherapy, Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences 2017:48(3):270-275
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jmir.2017.03.003 
An interfraction variation in bladder filling results in uncertainties of dose received and also has workflow implications for busy departments. This study aims to examine the dosimetric impact of a reduced bladder volume while determining a suitable threshold for treatment.

Ho E. S. Q., Barrett S & Mullaney L, A review of dosimetric and toxicity modeling of proton versus photon craniospinal irradiation for pediatrics medulloblastoma, Acta Oncologica, 56, (8), 2017, p1031 – 1042
https://doi.org/10.1080/0284186X.2017.1324207 
Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) is the standard radiation therapy treatment for medulloblastoma. Conventional CSI photon therapy (Photon-CSI) delivers significant dose to surrounding normal tissue (NT). Research into pediatric CSI with proton therapy (Proton-CSI) has increased, with the aim of exploiting the potential to reduce NT dose and associated post-treatment complications. This review aims to compare treatment outcomes of pediatric medulloblastoma patients between Proton- and Photon-CSI treatments.

Dowling K, Barrett S, Mullaney L and Poole C, A nationwide investigation of radiation therapy event reporting-and- learning systems: Can standards be improved? Radiography 2017; 23 (4): 279 – 286
 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.radi.2017.06.004 
Variation exists between event reporting-and-learning systems utilised in radiation therapy. Due to the impact of errors associated with this field of medicine, evidence-based and rigorous systems are imperative. The implementation of such systems facilitates the reactive enhancement of patient safety following an event. The purpose of this study was to evaluate Irish event reporting-and-learning procedures against the current literature using a developed evidence-based process map, and to propose recommendations as to how the national standard could be improved.

Stritch MA, Forde E, Leech M. The impact of intensity-modulated radiation therapy plan normalization in the postprostatectomy setting—does it matter? Medical Dosimetry 2017 ;42(4):368-74.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.meddos.2017.07.010 
The International Commission on Radiation Units & Measurements -83 recommends prescribing intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in a dose-volume manner. Despite this, clinical variation still exists in how prostate IMRT plans are prescribed. This study aims to investigate the impact of different plan normalization methods for postprostatectomy IMRT.

Mohan A and Forde E. Adherence to ICRU-83 reporting recommendations is inadequate in prostate dosimetry studies. Practical radiation oncology. 2017, in press
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prro.2017.08.006 
This study aimed to investigate if the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) 83 recommendations for reporting dosimetric endpoints are followed in published prostate studies using modulated techniques.

Hutchinson, J., Marignol, L. , Clinical Potential of Statins in Prostate Cancer Radiation Therapy. Anticancer research 2017;37(10):5363-5372
Statins are cholesterol- lowering drugs that have been shown to possess anti-tumour properties. Observational studies have shown that 3-hydroxy-3-methlyglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor (statin) use may be associated with reduced prostate cancer risk. Preclinical studies suggest that statins possess anticancer and radiosensitising properties. This review aims to determine the impact of statin use in the efficacy of radiation therapy and the therapeutic window in prostate cancer. 

Haruna, F., Lipsett, A., Marignol, L. , Topical Management of Acute Radiation Dermatitis in Breast Cancer Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Anticancer research 2017;37(10):5343-5353
The aim of this review was to evaluate the efficacy of topical corticosteroids in managing acute radiation dermatitis (RD) in female breast cancer patients. 

Fitzpatrick C, Lynch O, Marignol L., 68Ga-PSMA-PET/CT Has a Role in Detecting Prostate Cancer Lesions in Patients with Recurrent Disease. Anticancer research 2017;37 (6): 2753-2760
Early detection of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) lesions is paramount to allow patients to avail of localised salvage therapy options. The most significant reason for failure of salvage therapy is undetected metastatic disease. This demonstrates the need for a more accurate monitoring tool. The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) is increasingly investigated as a novel tracer for gallium 68 PET/CT to detect PCa lesions in patients with recurrent disease.

Samsuri N A B, Leech M, Marignol L. Metformin and improved treatment outcomes in radiation therapy – A review. Cancer Treatment Reviews 2017; 55:150-162 
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctrv.2017.03.005
This review discusses whether metformin should be offered to radiotherapy (RT) cancer patients as a means to improve their treatment outcomes. Three groups of RT cancer patients were analysed: diabetic patients using metformin, diabetic patients not using metformin and non-diabetic patients not using metformin. The analysis of the 13 studies included identified conflicting evidence with regards to the impact of metformin administration on recurrence and survival outcomes following radiotherapy.