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Dr. Clair Gardiner
Professor, Biochemistry

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Hartnell, F. and Brown, A. and Capone, S. and Kopycinski, J. and Bliss, C. and Makvandi-Nejad, S. and Swadling, L. and Ghaffari, E. and Cicconi, P. and Sorbo, M.D. and Sbrocchi, R. and Esposito, I. and Vassilev, V. and Marriott, P. and Gardiner, C.M. and Bannan, C. and Bergin, C. and Hoffmann, M. and Turner, B. and Nicosia, A. and Folgori, A. and Hanke, T. and Barnes, E. and Dorrell, L., A novel vaccine strategy employing serologically different chimpanzee adenoviral vectors for the prevention of HIV-1 and HCV coinfection, Frontiers in Immunology, 10, (JAN), 2019 Journal Article, 2019 TARA - Full Text DOI

Gardiner, C.M., NK cell metabolism, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, 105, (6), 2019, p1235-1242 Journal Article, 2019 DOI

Gardiner, C.M., How to wake a killer, Nature Immunology, 20, (12), 2019, p1561-1563 Journal Article, 2019 DOI

Cluxton, C.D. and Spillane, C. and O†Toole, S.A. and Sheils, O. and Gardiner, C.M. and O†Leary, J.J., Suppression of Natural Killer cell NKG2D and CD226 anti-tumour cascades by platelet cloaked cancer cells: Implications for the metastatic cascade, PLoS ONE, 14, (3), 2019 Journal Article, 2019 DOI TARA - Full Text

Slattery, K. and Gardiner, C.M., NK Cell Metabolism and TGFβ â€" Implications for Immunotherapy, Frontiers in Immunology, 10, (2915), 2019 Journal Article, 2019 DOI TARA - Full Text

Zaiatz-Bittencourt, D.K. Finlay, C.M. Gardiner. , Canonical TGF signalling pathway represses human NK cell metabolism, Journal of Immunology, 200, (12), 2018, p3934 - 3941 Journal Article, 2018 DOI

Loftus, R.M. and Assmann, N. and Kedia-Mehta, N. and O'Brien, K.L. and Garcia, A. and Gillespie, C. and Hukelmann, J.L. and Oefner, P.J. and Lamond, A.I. and Gardiner, C.M. and Dettmer, K. and Cantrell, D.A. and Sinclair, L.V. and Finlay, D.K., Amino acid-dependent cMyc expression is essential for NK cell metabolic and functional responses in mice, Nature Communications, 9, (1), 2018 Journal Article, 2018 DOI TARA - Full Text

Clair M. Gardiner and David K. Finlay, What Fuels Natural Killers? Metabolism and NK Cell Responses, Frontiers in Immunolobgy, 8, 2017 Review Article, 2017 TARA - Full Text DOI

Brennan K, McSharry BP, Keating S, Petrasca A, O'Reilly VP, Keane J, Doherty DG, Gardiner CM, Human Natural Killer cell expression of ULBP2 is associated with a mature functional phenotype., Human immunology, 77, (10), 2016, p876-885 Journal Article, 2016 DOI

Deac OM, Mills JL, Gardiner CM, Shane B, Quinn L, Midttun O, McCann A, Meyer K, Ueland PM, Fan R, Lu Z, Brody LC, Molloy AM, Serum Immune System Biomarkers Neopterin and Interleukin-10 Are Strongly Related to Tryptophan Metabolism in Healthy Young Adults, J Nutr, 146, (9), 2016, p1801 - 1806 Journal Article, 2016 DOI

Fischer J, Weber AN, Böhm S, Dickhöfer S, El Maadidi S, Deichsel D, Knop V, Klinker H, Möller B, Rasenack J, Wang L, Sharma M, Hinrichsen H, Spengler U, Buggisch P, Sarrazin C, Pawlita M, Waterboer T, Wiese M, Probst-Müller E, Malinverni R, Bochud PY, Gardiner CM, O'Farrelly C, Berg T., Sex-specific effects of TLR9 promoter variants on spontaneous clearance of HCV infection., Gut, 2016, pdoi: 10.1136/gutjnl-2015-31023 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Gardiner C.M, Mills K.H.G, The cells that mediate innate immune memory and their functional significance in inflammatory and infectious diseases, Seminars in Immunology, 28, (4), 2016, p343-350 Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

Gardiner CM, NK cell function and receptor diversity in the context of HCV infection., Frontiers in microbiology, 6, 2015, p1061 Journal Article, 2015 DOI

Keating SE, Ní Chorcora C, Dring MM, Stallings RL, O'Meara A, Gardiner CM, Increased frequencies of the killer immunoglobulin-like receptor genes KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 are associated with neuroblastoma., Tissue antigens, 86, (3), 2015, p172-7 Journal Article, 2015

Dunphy SE, Sweeney CM, Kelly G, Tobin AM, Kirby B, Gardiner CM, Natural killer cells from psoriasis vulgaris patients have reduced levels of cytotoxicity associated degranulation and cytokine production., Clinical immunology (Orlando, Fla.), 2015 Journal Article, 2015

Dunphy SE, Guinan KJ, Chorcora CN, Jayaraman J, Traherne JA, Trowsdale J, Pende D, Middleton D, Gardiner CM, 2DL1, 2DL2 and 2DL3 all contribute to KIR phenotype variability on human NK cells., Genes and immunity, 16, (5), 2015, p301-10 Journal Article, 2015

Donnelly RP, Loftus RM, Keating SE, Liou KT, Biron CA, Gardiner CM, Finlay DK, mTORC1-dependent metabolic reprogramming is a prerequisite for NK cell effector function., Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 193, (9), 2014, p4477-84 Journal Article, 2014

Doyle, SL, Ozaki, E, Brennan, K, Humphries, MM, Mulfaul, K, Keaney, J, Kenna, PF, Maminishkis, A, Kiang, AS, Saunders, SP, Hams, E, Lavelle, EC, Gardiner, C, Fallon, PG, Adamson, P, Humphries, P, Campbell, M, IL-18 Attenuates Experimental Choroidal Neovascularization as a Potential Therapy for Wet Age-Related Macular Degeneration, SCIENCE TRANSLATIONAL MEDICINE, 6, 2014, p230- Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text

Donnelly R, Loftus R, Keating S, Gardiner CM and Finlay DK. , mTORC1-dependent metabolic reprogramming is a prerequisite for Natural Killer cell effector function. , Journal of Immunology, 193, (9), 2014, p4477 - 4484 Journal Article, 2014

Morrison, M.H., Keane, C., Quinn, L.M., (...), Bergin, C., Gardiner, C.M., IFNL cytokines do not modulate human or murine NK cell functions, Human Immunology, 75, (9), 2014, 996-1000 Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text

Keane, C., O'Shea, D., Reiberger, T., Peck-Radosavljevic, M., Farrell, G., Bergin, C., Gardiner, C.M., Variation in Both IL28B and KIR2DS3 Genes Influence Pegylated Interferon and Ribavirin Hepatitis C Treatment Outcome in HIV-1 Co-Infection, PLoS ONE, 8, (6), 2013, pe66831- Journal Article, 2013 TARA - Full Text DOI

Niall Connolly, How the Dead Live, Philosophia, 39, (1), 2011, p83 - 103 Journal Article, 2011 URL DOI

Gardiner, C.M., Morrison, M.H., Dring, M.M., Reply to KrÃ"mer et al.: Human natural killer (NK) cell inhibition by IL28A, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 108, (34), 2011, pE521-E522 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Dring MM, Morrison MH, McSharry BP, Guinan KJ, Hagan R, O'Farrelly C, Gardiner CM, Innate immune genes synergize to predict increased risk of chronic disease in hepatitis C virus infection., PNAS, 108, (14), 2011, p5736-41 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text DOI

Fadda, L, O'Connor, GM, Kumar, S, Piechocka-Trocha, A, Gardiner, CM, Carrington, M, McVicar, DW, Altfeld, M, Common HIV-1 Peptide Variants Mediate Differential Binding of KIR3DL1 to HLA-Bw4 Molecules, JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 85, (12), 2011, p5970-5974 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Dunphy S, Gardiner CM, NK cells and psoriasis., Journal of Biomedicine & Biotechnology, 2011, 2011, p248317 Journal Article, 2011 DOI TARA - Full Text

Guinan KJ, Cunningham RT, Meenagh A, Gonzalez A, Dring MM, McGuinness BW, Middleton D and Gardiner CM , Signatures of natural selection and co-evolution between Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and HLA class I genes. , Genes and Immunity, 11, (6), 2010, p467-478 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Guinan KJ, Cunningham RT, Meenagh A, Dring M, Middleton D and Gardiner CM, Receptor systems controlling natural killer cell function are genetically stratified in Europe, Genes and Immunity, 11, (1), 2010, p67 - 78 Journal Article, 2010

The role of NK cells in bacterial infection in, editor(s)Zimmer, J , Natural Killer cells - at the forefront of modern immunology, Springer, 2009, [McSharry, B and Gardiner, CM] Book Chapter, 2009

Athie-Morales, O'Connor GM and Gardiner CM, Activation of human NK cells by the bacterial pathogen-associated molecular pattern, muramyl dipeptide, Journal of Immunology, 180, (6), 2008, p4082 - 4089 Journal Article, 2008

Gardiner CM, Killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors on NK cells: the how, where and why, International Journal of Immunogenetics, 35, (1), 2008, p1 - 8 Journal Article, 2008

O'Connor GM, Holmes A, Mulcahy F, Gardiner CM. , Natural Killer cells from long-term non-progressor HIV patients are characterized by altered phenotype and function., Clinical Immunology, 124, (3), 2007, p277 - 283 Journal Article, 2007

O'Connor GM, Guinan K, Cunningham RT, Middleton D, Parham P and Gardiner CM, Functional Polymorphism of the KIR3DL1/S1 Receptor on Human NK Cells., Journal of Immunology, 178, 2007, p235 - 241 Journal Article, 2007

O'Connor GM, Hart OM and Gardiner CM, Putting the NK cell in its Place, Immunology, 117, (1), 2006, p1 - 10 Journal Article, 2006

Hart OM, Athie-Morales V, O'Connor GM and Gardiner CM, TLR7/8 mediated activation of human NK cells results in accessory cell dependent IFN-gamma production, Journal of Immunology, 175, 2005, p1636 - 1642 Journal Article, 2005

Pando MJ, Gardiner CM, Gleimer M, McQueen KL and Parham P, The protein made from a common allele of KIR3DL1 (3DL1*004) is poorly expressed at the cell surface due to substitutions at positions 86 in Ig domain 0 and 182 in Ig domain 1, Journal of Immunology, 171, 2003, p6640 - 6649 Journal Article, 2003

Shilling HG, Guethlein LA, Chenng NW, Gardiner CM, Rodriguez R, Tyan D and Parham P, KIR allelic polymorphism is a major component of KIR haplotype diversity, Journal of Immunology, 168, 2002, p2307 - 2315 Journal Article, 2002

Gomez-Lozano N, Gardiner CM, Parham P and Vilches C, Some KIR haplotypes contain two KIR2DL5 genes: KIR2DL5A and KIR2DL5B, Immunogenetics, 54, 2002, p314 - 319 Journal Article, 2002

Shilling HG, Guethlein LA, Cheng NW, Gardiner CM, Tyan D and Parham P, Genetic control of human NK cell repertoires, Journal of Immunology, 169, 2002, p239 - 247 Journal Article, 2002

Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM, Canavez F, Vilches C and Parham P, Identification of seventeen novel KIR variants: fourteen of them from two non-Caucasian donors, Tissue Antigens, 57, 2001, p22 - 31 Journal Article, 2001

Gardiner CM, Guethlein LA, Shilling HG, Pando M, carr WH, Rajalingam R, Vilches C and Parham P, Different NK cell surface phenotypes defined by the DX9 antibody are due to KIR3DL1 gene polymorphism, Journal of Immunology, (166), 2001, p2992 - 3001 Journal Article, 2001

Vilches C, Rajalingam R, Uhrberg M, Gardiner CM, Young N and Parham P, KIR2DL5, a novel killer-cell receptor with a D0-D2 configuration of immunoglobulin-like domains, Journal of Immunology, 164, 2000, p5797 - 5804 Journal Article, 2000

Vilches C, Pando M, Rajalingam R, Gardiner CM and Parham P, Discovery of two novel variants of KIR2DS5 reveals this gene to be a common component of the human KIR 'B' haplotypes, Tissue Antigens, 56, 2000, p453 - 456 Journal Article, 2000

Vilches C, Gardiner CM and Parham P, Gene structure and promoter variation of expressed and non-expressed variants of the KIR2DL5 gene, Journal of Immunology, 165, 2000, p6416 - 6421 Journal Article, 2000

Gardiner CM, Quick guide: Natural Killer cells, Current Biology, 9, 1999, p716- Journal Article, 1999

Gardiner CM and Reen DJ, Differential cytokine regulation of NK cell mediated cytotoxicity, Immunology, 93, 1998, p511 - 517 Journal Article, 1998

Gardiner CM, O'Meara A and Reen DJ, Differential cytotoxicity of cord blood and bone marrow derived NK cells, Blood, 91, 1998, p207 - 213 Journal Article, 1998

Gardiner CM, Reen DJ and O'Meara A, Recognition of unusual presentation of a Natural Killer cell leukaemia, American Journal of Hematology, 50, 1995, p133 - 139 Journal Article, 1995

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

Gardiner CM, Breakthroughs in understanding NK cell metabolism, Seminar Series, Stanford University, July, 2014, Prof. Peter Parham Invited Talk, 2014

Gardiner CM, Natural Killer cells in cancer, Seminar Series, NUI Maynooth, November, 2013, Prof. Paul Moynagh Invited Talk, 2013

Research Expertise





British Society for Immunology

Irish Society for Immunology