I am interested in geochemically and temporally characterising significant processes and events in Earth history. My current research projects span the present day into the Archean. Some of these projects also deal with formation of economic mineral deposits and geosphere-biosphere-hydrosphere-atmosphere interactions.
The following are examples of my current research topics:
- Production, transport and accumulation of radon: Ireland has some of the highest radon levels in Europe and the eighth highest average indoor concentration in the world. I am interested in developing novel methodological advancements in radon-related research to better understand the factors controlling the sources and distribution of radon in both natural and built environments. I am academic mentor of a Post-Doctoral Research Fellow (Javier Elio) at TCD working in this theme.
- Cold-water corals as environmental archives of the deep oceans: Biominerals have the potential to act as high-resolution proxies for environmental change. Cold-water corals (e.g. Lophelia pertusa) form a significant biomass is the North Atlantic offshore Ireland and represent an under-explored potential as a high-resolution proxy for environmental and climate change spanning the present day to Miocene.
- Geochemistry of the contemporary environment: Elemental and isotopic analyses of rock, soil, plants and biominerals (e.g. teeth and bones) have the potential to inform us about natural processes such as rock weathering and soil formation, interaction between terrestrial and marine reservoirs, animal and human migration and environmental effects of anthropogenic activities.
- Evolution of the early Earth: I am currently working on geochemistry and geochronology of Archean rocks from Mauritania (West African Craton), NE Scotland (Atlantic Craton) and India (Singhbhum Craton) to gain a better understanding of processes operating in the early Earth.
- The nature and timing of mineralisation in relation to magmatic and tectonic processes: I am interested in providing absolute age constraints on economically significant mineralisation events. Current projects include Archean Au mineralisation in Mauritania, Palaeoproterozoic Cu-Mo porphyry deposits in Namibia and Ordovician Au-Cu-Zn-Pb mineralisation in SE Ireland.
I currently supervise the following postgraduate researchers:
- Shane Lavery, MSc, Developing a predictive model for Mo mineralisation in a porphyry system.
- Eoghan Corbett, PhD. Refinement of high spatial resolution U-Pb geochronologic methodologies, TCD. Co-supervised by Tony Simonetti, University of Notre Dame, USA.
- James Stratford, PhD. Characterisation of orogenic vein systems in the context of Irish gold exploration, TCD. Co-supervised with Sean McClenaghan (TCD).
- Siobhan Burke, PhD. Formation of littoral and offshore Irish placer resources (FLIPeR), UCC. Co-supervised with Andy Wheeler (UCC).
- Meabh Hughes, MSc, A Soil Geochemistry and Soil-Radon Study of Castleisland, Co. Kerry.
Past postgraduate students include:
- Saskia Ryan, PhD, 2017, Sr Isotopes in the Irish Biosphere, TCD.
- Kyle Heron, PhD, 2016. Geochronology and Gold Mineralisation in the Mesoarchean Tasiat Terrane, Mauritania. TCD.
- Vincent Mouchi, PhD, 2016. Biomineralisation and Isotope Proxies for Environmental Change. TCD.
- Neil Grumbley, MSc, 2015. Geological Evolution of the Haib Cu-Mo Porphyry Deposit, Southern Namibia. TCD.
- John MacDonald, PhD, 2010. Crustal boundaries in the Precambrian - what tectonics do they represent? PhD. Co-supervised with John Wheeler, University of Liverpool, UK.
- Chris Lawley, PhD, 2010. Nature and timing of gold mineralisation in a Paleoprotozeroic domain of Tanzania. Co-supervised with David Selby, Durham University, UK.
- Gavin Chan, PhD, 2008. Ophiolite complexes preserved along the Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone (YTSZ), Southern Tibet. Co-supervised with Mike Searle, University of Oxford.
- James Blight, PhD, 2008. The geological evolution of the Saykhandulaan Inlier, Mongolia: A window into the Palaeozoic growth of the South Gobi Mineral Belt. Co-supervised with Dickson Cunningham, University of Leicester, UK.
- Joanne Neilson, PhD, 2007. From slab break-off to triggered eruptions: tectonic controls of Caledonian post-orogenic magmatism. Co-supervised with Peter Kokelaar, University of Liverpool, UK.
Two year iCRAG funded MSc by research on Cold Water Corals, starting 2019.
Post-Doctoral Researcher in Offshore Geothermal Resource Management - Expression of Interest Deadline February 20th.Please contact me if you are contemplating postgraduate research at TCD and have an interest in one or more of the themes covered by my research programme.
I am the current Director of a taught MSc in Environmental Sciences at Trinity College Dublin.
I coordinate the following modules:
M.Sc. Environmental Sciences
ES7005 Earth Systems Science: Deep Time
ES7049 Practical Environmental Skills
BA Science (Geology)
GL4402 Field work
GL4427 Isotope Geochemistry and Geochronology
BA Earth Science
GL4421 Field work
I also contribute to the following modules:
BA Environmental Science
ES3040 Environmental Monitoring
MSc Environmental Sciences
ES7001 Induction Week
ES7056 Environmental Monitoring
AERYN. This is a MATLAB based standalone application for visualizing and enhancing elemental maps. To use AERYN you must first download and install the free Matlab Runtime R2015a (8.5) from the MathWorks website.
Green, D.S. Kregting, L., Boots, b., Blockley, D.J., Brickle, P., da Costa, M., Crowley, Q.G., 2018. A comparison of sampling methods for seawater microplastics and a first report of the microplastic litter in coastal waters of Ascension and Falkland Islands. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 137, 695-701. DOI
Ryan, S.E., Reynard, L.M., Crowley, Q.G., Snoeck, C., Tuross, N. 2018. Early medieval reliance on the land and the local: An integrated multiisotope study (87Sr/86Sr, δ18O, δ13C, δ15N) of diet and migration in Co. Meath, Ireland, Journal of Archaeological Science, 98, 59-71. DOI
Barkat, Q., Ali, A., Hayat, U., Rehman, K., Crowley, Q.G., Siddique, N., Haidar, T., Iqbal, T. 2018. Time series analysis of soil radon in Northern Pakistan: implications for earthquake forecasting, Applied Geochemistry, 97, 2018, 197-208. DOI
Elío J., Crowley Q.G, Scanlon R., Hodgson J., Zgaga L. 2018. Estimation of residential radon exposure and definition of Radon Priority Areas based on expected lung cancer incidence, Environment International, 114, 69 – 76. DOI
Ryan, S., Snoeck, C., Crowley, Q.G., Babechuk, M. 2018. 87Sr/86Sr and trace element mapping of geosphere-hydrosphere-biosphere interactions: A case study in Ireland, Applied Geochemistry, 92, 209-224. DOI
Elío J., Crowley Q.G, Scanlon R., Hodgson J., Long S. 2017. Logistic regression model for detecting radon prone areas in Ireland, Science of The Total Environment, 599-600, 1317-1329. DOI
McConnell, B., Crowley, Q.G, Parks, M. 2017. Reply to Comment on 'No Exploits back-arc basin in the Iapetus suture zone of Ireland', Journal of the Geological Society, 174, 791-792. DOI
Mouchi, V., Volanthen, P., Verrecchia, E.P., Crowley, Q.G. 2017. Multi-scale crystallographic ordering in the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, Scientific Reports, 7. DOI
Mouchi, V., Lartaud, F., Guichard, N., Immel, F., de Rafélis, M., Broussard, C., Crowley, Q.G., Marin, F. 2016. Chalky versus foliated: a discriminant immunogold labelling of shell microstructures in the edible oyster Crassostrea gigas, Marine Biology, 163:256. DOI
Mouchi, V., Crowley, Q.G., Ubide, T., 2016. AERYN : a simple standalone application for visualizing and enhancing elemental maps, Applied Geochemistry, 75, 44-53. DOI
Cooper, M., Anderson, P., Condon, D., Ellam, R., Meighan, I., Crowley, Q.G. 2016. Intrusion history of the Late Caledonian, Newry Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland revealed by high resolution Tellus geophysics and U-Pb age constraints. In: Unearthed: impacts of the Tellus surveys of the north of Ireland, Royal Irish Academy. URL
Heron, K., Jessell, M., Harris, E., Benn, K., Crowley, Q. 2016. The Tasiast Deposit, Mauritania, Ore Geology Reviews, 78, 564-572. DOI
McConnell, B., Rogers, R., Crowley, Q. 2016. Sediment provenance and tectonics on the Laurentian margin, Scottish Journal of Geology, 52, 11-17. DOI
Chan, Gavin Heung Ngai Aitchison, Jonathan C. Crowley, Quentin G. Horstwood, Matthew S. A. Searle, Michael P. Parrish, Randall R. Chan, Jacky Sik-Lap. 2015. U-Pb zircon ages for Yarlung Tsangpo suture zone ophiolites, southwestern Tibet and their tectonic implications, Gondwana Research, 27, 719-732. DOI
Crowley, Q.G., Key, R., Noble, S.R. 2015. High-precision U-Pb dating of complex zircon from the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Scotland using an incremental CA-ID-TIMS approach. Gondwana Research, 27, 1381-1391. DOI
Crowley, Q.G., Mukhopadhyay, J., Ghosh, S., Ghosh, G., Chakrabarti, K., Misra, B., Heron, K., Bose, S. 2015. Forum Reply: Oxygenation of the Archean Atmosphere: New Paleosol Constraints from Eastern India, Geology, e367. PDF
Crowley, Q.G., Strachan, R.A. 2015. U-Pb zircon constraints on obduction initiation of the Unst Ophiolite: an oceanic core complex in the Scottish Caledonides? Journal of the Geological Society, 172, 279-282. DOI
MacDonald, J.M., Goodenough, K.M., Wheeler, J., Crowley, Q., Harley, S.L., Mariani, E., Tatham, D. 2015. Temperature–time evolution of the Assynt Terrane of the Lewisian Gneiss Complex of Northwest Scotland from zircon U-Pb dating and Ti thermometry, Precambrian Research, 260, 55-75. DOI PDF
McConnell, B., Parks, M., Crowley, Q.G., Rushton, A. 2015. No Exploits back-arc basin in the Iapetus suture zone of Ireland, Journal of the Geological Society, 172, 740-747. DOI
Crowley, Q.G., Heron, K., Riggs, N., Kamber, B. Chew, D., McConnell, B., Benn, K. 2014. Chemical Abrasion Applied to LA-ICP-MS U–Pb Zircon Geochronology. Minerals 4, 503-518. DOI
Kryza, R, Pin, C., Oberc-Dziedzic, T., Crowley, Q.G., Larionov, A. 2014. Deciphering the geochronology of a large granitoid pluton (Karkonosze Granite, SW Poland): an assessment of U-Pb zircon SIMS and Rb-Sr whole-rock dates relative to U-Pb zircon CA-ID-TIMS. International Geology Review, 56, 756-782. DOI
Mouchi, V., Crowley, Q.G., Jackson, A.L., McDermott, F., Monteys, X., de Rafélis, M., Luis Rueda, J. Lartaud, F. 2014. Potential seasonal calibration for palaeoenvironmental reconstruction using skeletal microstructures and strontium measurements from the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa, Journal of Quaternary Science, 29, 803-814. DOI
Waldron, J., Schofield, D., S. DuFrane, A., Floyd, J., Crowley, Q., Simonetti, A., Dokken, R., Pothier, H. 2014. Ganderia-Laurentia collision in the Caledonides of Great Britain and Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, 171, 555-569. DOI
Bozkurt, E., Winchester, J.A., Satır, M., Crowley, Q.G., Ottley, C.J. 2013. The Almacık mafic-ultramafic complex: exhumed Sakarya subcrustal mantle adjacent to the İstanbul Zone, NW Turkey, Geological Magazine, 150, 254-282. DOI.
Cooper, M.R., Crowley, Q.G., Hollis, S.P., Noble, S.R., Henny, P.J. 2013. A U-Pb age for the Late Caledonian Sperrin Mountains minor intrusions suite in the north of Ireland: timing of slab break-off in the Grampian terrane and the significance of deep-seated, crustal lineaments, Journal of the Geological Society, 170, 603-614. DOI.
Goodenough, K., Crowley, Q.G., Krabbendam, M., Parry, S.F. 2013. New U-Pb age constraints for the Laxford Shear Zone, NW Scotland: Evidence for tectono-magmatic processes associated with the formation of a Paleoproterozoic supercontinent, Precambrian Research, 231, 1-18. DOI.
Goodenough, K.M., Styles, M.T., Schofield, D., Thomas, R.J., Crowley, Q.G., Lilly, R.M., McKervey, J., Stephenson, D., Carney, J.N. 2013. Architecture of the Oman-UAE ophiolite: Evidence for a multi-phase magmatic history. Frontiers in Earth Sciences, 5, pp. 23-42.
MacDonald, J.M., Wheeler, J., Harley, S.L., Mariani, E., Goodenough, K.M., Crowley, Q., Tatham, D. 2013. Lattice distortion in a zircon population and its effects on trace element mobility and U-Th-Pb isotope systematics: examples from the Lewisian Gneiss Complex, northwest Scotland, Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, 166, 21-41. DOI.
Lawley, C.J.M., Selby, D., Condon, D.J., Horstwood, M., Millar, I., Crowley, Q., Imber, J. 2013. Lithogeochemistry, geochronology and geodynamic setting of the Lupa Terrane, Tanzania: Implications for the extent of the Archean Tanzanian Craton, Precambrian Research, 231, 174-193. DOI.
Parry, S.F., Noble, S.R., Crowley, Q.G., Wellman, C.H. Reply to Discussion on 'A high-precision U–Pb age constraint on the Rhynie Chert Konservat-Lagerstätte: timescale and other implications', Journal of the Geological Society, 170, (4), 2013, p703-706. DOI.
Ryszard Kryza, Quentin G. Crowley, Alexander Larionov, Christian Pin, Teresa Oberc-Dziedzic, Ksenia Mochnacka, Chemical abrasion applied to SHRIMP zircon geochronology: An example from the Variscan Karkonosze Granite (Sudetes, SW Poland), Gondwana Research, 21, 2012, p757-767. DOI.
Pointon, M.A. , Chew, D.M., Ovtcharova, M., Sevastopulo, G.D. , Crowley, Q.G., New high-precision U-Pb dates from Western European Carboniferous tuffs; implications for timescale calibration, the periodicity of late Carboniferous cycles and stratigraphical correlation, Journal of the Geological Society, 169, (6), 2012, p713-721. DOI.
Cooper, M.R., Crowley, Q.G., Hollis, S.P., Noble, S.R., Roberts, S., Chew, D., Merriman, R.J., Earls, G., Herrington, R. 2011. Age Constraints and Geochemistry of the Ordovician Tyrone Igneous Complex, Northern Ireland, Journal of the Geological Society, 168, p837-850.
Parry, S., Noble, S., Crowley, Q., Wellman, C. 2011. A high-precision U-Pb age constraint on the Rhynie Chert Konservat-Lagerstätte: timescale and other implications. Journal of the Geological Society, 168, 2011, p863-872.
Smyth, H.R., Crowley, Q.G., Hall, R., Kinny, P.D. Hamilton, J., Schmidt, D.N. 2011. A Toba-scale eruption in the Early Miocene: the Semilir eruption, East Java, Indonesia, Lithos, 126, (3-4), p198-211.
Zimmermann, U. Tait, J. Crowley, Q.G., Pashley, V. Straathof, G. 2011. Diamicitites in southern Namibia and their associated rocks - constraints for a global glaciation? International Journal of Earth Sciences, p511-526.
Chew, D.M., Fallon, N., Kennelly, C., Crowley, Q., Pointon, M. 2010. Basic volcanism contemporaneous with the Sturtian glacial episode in NE Scotland, Earth and Environmental Science Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 100, (4), 399-415.
Blight, J.H.S., Crowley, Q.G., Petterson, M.G., Cunningham, D. 2010. Granites of the Southern Mongolia Carboniferous Arc: new geochronological and geochemical constraints, Lithos, 116, (1-2), 35-52 .
Blight, J.H.S., Petterson, M.G., Crowley, Q.G., Cunningham, D. 2010. The Oyut Ulaan Volcanic Group: Stratigraphy, magmatic evolution and timing in the Carboniferous arc of South East Mongolia, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167, (3), 491-509.
Goodenough, K.M., Park, R.G., Krabbendam, M., Myers, J., Wheeler, J., Loughlin, S., Crowley, Q.G., Kinny, P., Friend C.R.L., Beach, A., Graham, R. 2010. The Laxford Shear Zone: an Archean terrane boundary? Geological Society, London, Special Publication, 335, 101-118.
Goodenough, K.M., Styles M.T., Schofield D., Thomas R.J., Crowley Q.G., Lilly R.M., McKervey, J., Stephenson, D., Carney, J. 2010. Architecture of the Oman - UAE Ophiolite: evidence for a multi-phase magmatic history, Arabian Journal of Geosciences, 3, (4), p439-458.
Kimbell, G.S., Young, B., Millward, D., Crowley, Q.G. 2010.The North Pennine batholith (Weardale Granite) of Northern England: new data on its age and form. Proceedings of the Yorkshire Geological Society, 58:107-128.
McConnell, B. Crowley, Q.G., Riggs, N. 2010. A Laurentian origin for the Ordovician Grangegeeth volcanic arc terrane, Ireland, Journal of the Geological Society, London, 167, (3), 467-473.
McConnell, B., Riggs, N., Crowley, Q.G. 2010. Comment on “Detrital U–Pb zircon dating of lower Ordovician syn-arc-continent collision conglomerates in the Irish Caledonides” by Peter D. Clift, Andrew Carter, Amy E. Draut,
Hoang Van Long, David M. Chew, Hans A. Schouten, Tectonophysics 479 (2009), 165–174 , Tectonophysics, 490, 136-137.
Chan, G.H., Waters, D.J., Searle, M.P., Aitchison, J., Horstwood, M.S.A., Crowley, Q.G., Lo, C.-H., Chan, J. S.-L. 2009. Probing the basement of southern Tibet: evidence from crustal xenoliths entrained in a Miocene ultrapotassic dyke. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 166, 45-52.
McConnell, B., Riggs, N., Crowley, Q.G. 2009. Detrital zircon provenance and Ordovician terrane amalgamation, western Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 166, 473-484.
Neilson, J.C., Kokelaar, P., Crowley, Q.G. 2009. New ages for Siluro-Devonian magmatism in the SW Scottish Highlands: Timescales for volcanic-plutonic activity. Journal of the Geological Society, 166, 545-561.
Chew, D.M., Flowerdew, M.J., Page, L.M., Crowley, Q.G., Daly, J.S., Cooper, M., Whitehouse, M.J. 2008. The tectonothermal evolution and provenance of the Tyrone Central Inlier, Ireland: Grampian imbrication of an outboard Laurentian microcontinent? Journal of the Geological Society, London. 165, 675-685.
Cooper, M., Crowley, Q.G., Rushton, A. 2008. New age constraints for the Ordovician Tyrone Volcanic Group, Northern Ireland. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 165, 333-340.
Key, R.M., Loughlin, S.C., Horstwood, M.S.A., Gillespie, M., Pitfield, P.E.J., Henney, P.J., Crowley, Q.G., Del Rio, M. 2008. Two Mesoarchaean Terranes in the Reguibat shield of NW Mauritania. Geological Society of London Special Publication, 297, 33-52.
Okay, A.I., Bozkurt, E., Satır, M., Yiğitbaş, E., Crowley, Q.G., Shang, C.K. 2008. Defining the southern margin of Avalonia in the Pontides: geochronological data from the Late Proterozoic and Ordovician granitoids from NW Turkey. Tectonophysics 461, 252-264.
Selby, D., Conliffe, J., Crowley, Q.G., Feely, M. 2008. Geochronology (Re-Os, U-Pb) & fluid inclusion studies of molybdenite mineralisation associated with the Shap, Skiddaw & Weardale Granites, UK. Applied Earth Science (Trans. Inst. Min. Metall. B), 117, 11-28.
Anczkiewicz, R., Mazur, S., Szczepanski, J., Storey. C., Crowley, Q.G., Villa, I.M., Thirlwall, M., Jeffries, T.E. 2007. Lu-Hf geochronology and trace element distribution in garnet: Implications for uplift and exhumation of ultra-high pressure granulites in the Sudetes, SW Poland. Lithos, 95, 363-380.
Zhang, Hong-Fei, Parrish, Randall, Zhang, Li, Xu, Wang-Chun, Yuan, Hong-Lin, Gao, Shan, Crowley, Quentin G. 2007. A-type granite and adakitic magmatism association in Songpan-Garze fold belt, eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implication for lithospheric delamination. Lithos. 97, 323-325.
Zhang, Hong-Fei, Parrish, Randall, Zhang, Li, Xu, Wang-Chun, Yuan, Hong-Lin, Gao, Shan, Crowley, Quentin G. 2007. Reply to the comment by Zhang et al. on: “First finding of A-type and adakitic magmatism association in
Songpan–Garze fold belt, eastern Tibetan Plateau: Implication for lithoshperic delamination”. doi:10.1016/j.lithos.2007.10.011.
Schofield, D.I., Horstwood, M.S.A., Pitfield, P.E.J., Crowley, Q.G., Wilkinson, A.F., Sidaty, H.Ch.O. 2006. Timing and kinematics of Eburnean tectonics in the central Reguibat Shield, Mauritania. Journal of the Geological Society, 163, 549-560.
Styles, M.T., Ellison, R.A., Arkley, S.L.B., Crowley, Q., Farrant, A., Goodenough, K M, McKervey, J A, Pharaoh, T C, Phillips, E R, Schofield, D, and Thomas, R J. 2006. The Geology and Geophysics of the United Arab Emirates. Volume 1: Geology. (Keyworth, Nottingham: British Geological Survey.)
Winchester, J.A., Kachlik, V., Patocka, F., Melzer, M., Nawakowski, C., Crowley, Q.G., Floyd, P.A., 2003. Geochemistry of Metasedimentary sequences in the Krkonose-Jizera Terrane, West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif: paleotectonic and stratigraphic implications. Journal of the Czech Geological Society, 48 (1-2), 135-136.
Winchester, J.A., Patocka, F., Kachlik, V., Melzer, M., Nawakowski, C., Crowley, Q.G., Floyd, P.A. 2003. Geochemical discrimination of metasedimentary sequences in the Krkonose-Jizera terrane (West Sudetes, Bohemian Massif): Paleotectonic and stratigraphic constraints. Geologica Carpathica, 54 (5), 267-280.
Crowley, Q.G., Štědrá, V., Winchester, J.A.W., Floyd, P.A., S., Holland, J.G. 2002. The Mariánské-Lázně Complex: development and destruction of an early Palaeozoic seaway. Geological Society Special Publication 201, 177-195.
Crowley, Q.G., Timmermann, H., Noble, S., Holland, J.G. 2002. Palaeozoic Terrane Amalgamation in Central Europe: a REE and Sm-Nd Isotopic Study of the pre-Variscan Basement, NE Bohemian Massif. Geological Society Special Publication 201, 157-176.
Floyd, P.A., Crowley, Q.G., Winchester, J.A.W., Kryza, R., Abdel-Wahed, M. 2002. Pillow lavas in the Sleza Ophiolite and their geochemical relationship to other Sudetic mafic components. Geological Society Special Publication 201, 197-216.
Winchester, J.A., Floyd. P.A., Crowley, Q.G. et al. 2002. Palaeozoic amalgamation of Central Europe: new results from recent geological and geophysical investigations. Tectonophysics, 360, 5-21.
Crowley, Q.G., Floyd, P.A., Winchester, J.A.W, Franke, W., Holland, J.G. 2000. Early Palaeozoic rift-related magmatism in Variscan Europe: fragmentation of the Armorican Terrane Assemblage. Terra Nova. 12 (4), 171-180.
Floyd, P.A., Winchester, J.A., Seston, R., Kryza, R., Crowley, Q.G. 2000. Review of geochemical variation in Lower Palaeozoic metabasites from the NE Bohemian Massif: intracratonic rifting and plume-ridge interaction. In: Orogenic Processes: Quantification and Modelling in the Variscan Belt (W.Franke, V. Haak and D. Tanner, eds.). Geological Society, London, special publication 179, 155-174.
Seston, R., Winchester, J.A., Piasecki, M.A.J., Crowley, Q.G., Floyd, P.A. 2000. A structural model for the Western-Central Sudetes: a deformed stack of Variscan thrust-bounded slices. Journal of the Geological Society, London, 157, 1155-1167.
Crowley, Q.G., Feely, M. 1997. New perspectives on the order and style of granite emplacement in the Galway Batholith, western Ireland. Geological Magazine, 134, 539-548.