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Module I CH7001: Introduction to Energy Science

(1) Introduction to Energy Science, Prof. Stephen Dooley (2 lectures)

Fundamentals of energy conversion. World total primary energy supply by country, energy source, utilisation technology. World energy exports. Growing energy demands. Greenhouse gas emissions. Scale of energy utilisation. Legacy time-scale for implementing change to energy. List of environmental impacts of energy. The need for sustainability. Over view of Philosophy, Motivations, Objectives and Organisation of MSc Energy Science at Trinity.

(2) Environmental Impact of Energy Utilisation, Prof. Juan Diego Rodriguez-Blanco (12 lectures)

Role of CO2 in mineral-water interface geochemistry and its importance for natural and industrial processes. Mineral-water reactions, kinetics and mechanisms of crystal growth and dissolution, natural and industrial sources and CO2 and importance of the carbon cycle. Warming mechanism of carbon dioxide. Global warming potentials of other pollutants. Photochemical Smog and Acid Rain. Ground water contamination. NOX, particulate and photochemical smog. Nuclear waste.

(3) Economics of Energy & Energy Regulation & Policy, Prof. Stephen Dooley (15 lectures)

Review of the basics of supply, demand and price formation in competitive markets. Energy supply and the economics of finite resources. World oil markets and energy security. Futures markets and derivatives. Risk management in markets. Natural gas and electricity market regulation and de-regulation. CO2 emissions caps and trading mechanisms. Climate change implications for energy markets. Energy efficiency and renewable energy policies. Social acceptance of energy technologies. European law and policy on energy and emissions.

(4) Thermodynamics, Reaction Kinetics and Heat Transfer, Prof. Max Garcia Melchor (12 lectures)

Essential Physical, Chemical and Engineering Thermodynamics; First law, Second law, Entropy, Reversibility, Work and Heat, Ideal Gas, Real Gas. Essential Chemical Reaction Kinetics; Balancing chemical equations and thermodynamic quantities, Equilibrium, Transition State, Reaction Rate Constants and Reaction Rates, Temperature and pressure dependence, Reaction Mechanisms, Catalysis, Radical Chain Reactions. Essential Heat Transfer; Fourier's law, Conduction processes, Thermal resistance, Elementary convection- including laminar and turbulent boundary layers, Thermal radiation, including Stefan-Boltzmann law, Basic concepts of heat exchangers. Construction of thermodynamic cycles.

(5) Energy Storage Electromagnetism, Prof. David McCloskey (12 lectures)

Maxwell's equations and lumped element model. basic electrical components, voltage and current dividers, circuit theory; Kirchhoff's rules, Thévenin’s theorem, Norton's theorem. AC circuits; RC circuits, RLC circuits, Bandwidth, Filter design. Real, reactive and apparent power in single-phase AC circuits. Power electronics components; Diodes, Transistors, Thyristors, Transistors, Logic, OP Amps. Overview of electric power system; Generators, Transmission, Distribution.

(6) Materials for Energy Applications, Prof. Peter Dunne (7 lectures)

Atomic and crystal structure. Solid defects and diffusion. Phase diagrams and phase transformations. Mechanical and thermal properties. Electrical, optical and magnetic properties. Alloys and coatings. Ceramics, polymers and composites. Advanced nanomaterials. Powder X-ray Diffraction. Electron microscopy.

Module II PY7001: Conventional Energy Sources and Technologies

(7) Fossil fuels, Combustion, Engines and Emissions, Prof. Stephen Dooley (25 lectures)

Fuels; Coal, Crude oil and derived products, Natural Gas, Shale Gas, Tar Sands, Synthesis Gas, Peat. Fuel legal specifications and performance properties. Combustion phenomena; Flame Temperatures, Diffusion, Liquid-Vapour Transformations, Combustion Reaction Mechanisms, Flames - Laminar and Turbulent, Premixed and Diffusion, Ignition, Propagation and Extinction, Autoignition. Emissions; Particulate-NOx trade-off, Emission Regulations - Ground Transportation (Euro V, Euro VI), Power Generation (Integrated Pollution Prevention and Control Act), Exhaust Gas Cleaning - Selective Catalytic Reduction and Scrubbers. Solid Fuel Combustors; Boilers, Fluidized-bed Combustors, Gasifiers, Travelling Grates. Engines; (i) Reciprocating - Compression Ignition (Diesel), Spark Ignition (Gasoline) Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition, Sterling. (ii) Constant Volume - Gas Turbine Combustors – Dry Low Emission, Lean Premixed, Rich - Quench Lean.

(8) Nuclear Energy Reactions, Materials and Reactor Technologies, Prof. Robert Baker, Prof. Plamen Stamenov (15 lectures)

Why nuclear energy – advantages and disadvantages. Proliferation and Impact. Nuclear Reactions; Nuclear fission, Nuclear fussion, Extraction of Uranium from ores, Fuel fabrication (U, MOX and Th), Power generation and degradation of fuel pellets, Neutron reactions and characteristics, Scattering of neutrons, Neutron flux and cross-sections, Neutron transport and diffusion equations, Dynamic neutron characteristics, Xenon and other poisonings, Burn-up, Equilibrium states, Fuel cycles, The physics and chemistry of UO2, Fuel Reprocessing, Storage of spent nuclear fuels – mitigating environmental impacts, Case studies. Nuclear Reactors; General principles of nuclear reactor design – neutron and thermal considerations, Elements of reactor theory, Common reactor components, Reactor types, classifications and generations, Historical notes, current status and planned future reactors worldwide, Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs), Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs), Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs and Candu), Gas-cooled reactors (AGR & Magnox), Light water graphite moderated reactors (RBMK), Fast neutron reactors and breeders (FBR), Back-end and auxiliary equipment, Fuel types and fuel handling equipment, Control strategies and control algorithms, Passive and active control, Safety aspects and measures. Construction, deployment, use and decommissioning of nuclear reactors.

Module III PY7002: Electric Power Generation and Distribution

(9) Electrical Machines and Power Electronics Prof. David McCloskey (20 lectures)

Magnetic circuits, ferromagnetic materials, Amperes Law, Faradays Law, Flux linkages, Motor vs generator, Linear motors. AC Machinery; Start-up and steady state, Losses and efficiency. Synchronous machines; Induction motors, DC machinery, Electric vehicles. Industry standards. Power electronics for motor control. Rectifiers, Diode bridge, Single phase and three phase configurations. Inverters, Pulse width modulation. Switch mode power supplies and resonant converters.

(10) Power Systems Analysis and Smart Grids, Prof. David McCloskey (20 lectures)

Power systems topology and components; Generators, Substations, Voltage and Current transformers, Buses, Circuit breaker assemblies, Surge arresters. Three phase power; Wye and Delta connections, Load balancing, Measuring three phase power. Transformers; Ideal single phase and three phase, Realistic transformers, Autotransformers. Transmission; Cable structures, Sag, Electric and magnetic fields, Bundling. Transmission line parameters; Conductance, Inductance, Capacitance, Shunt admittances, Steady state operation, Medium and short line approximations, Transmission line differential equations, Equivalent π circuit, Power flow modelling, Response time, Transients, Faults, Nonlinear loads and harmonics, Reactive power compensation, Power system operation and control.

Module IV CH7002: Sustainable Energy Sources and Technologies I

(11) Electrochemical Cell Technology, Prof. Michael Lyons (12 lectures)

Physical and interfacial electrochemistry; Ion/solvent & Ion/ion interactions in electrolyte solutions, Structure of the electrode/solution interface, Electric double layer, Capacitive and Faradaic current flow, Interfacial capacitance measurement, Metal/solution interface, Electrical equivalent circuits, Semiconductor/solution interface. Electrochemical thermodynamics; Equilibrium at electrified interfaces, Charge transfer at electrode/solution interfaces, Kinetics at semiconductor/solution interfaces, Basic photoelectrochemistry, Transport in electrochemical systems- diffusion, migration & convection, Steady state & transient diffusion models,

Electrochemical impedance analysis, Hydrodynamic electrodes: RDE and RRDE systems, Photoelectrochemical RRDE systems, Levich and Koutecky Levich analysis, Principles of Electrocatalysis, Electrochemical energy conversion & storage, Electrochemical analysis of; batteries, supercapacitors, electrolysis reactors and fuel cell systems, Modern electrochemical techniques; Measuring kinetic, conductivity, redox and catalytic parameters of complex electrode reactions, Turnover frequency, Redox capacitance, Active surface area and other figure of merit calculations in electrocatalytic systems, Quantitative analysis of electrochemical techniques to solution phase and surface electrochemical processes, An introduction to computational electrocatalysis, Mechanistic understanding of electrocatalytic reactions relevant to Energy Science, Free energy diagrams, Microkinetic modelling.

(12) Wind Energy Generation and Utilisation, Prof. Biswajit Basu (28 lectures)

Wind energy for electrical energy supply, Wind energy technology domestically and internationally, Introduction to wind flow, Fluid mechanics for wind energy, Wind resources and micrositing, Ideal wind turbines and practical constraints, Power Curves. Turbine design (tower, blades, gearbox, foundations), Aerodynamics and aeroelasticity, Wake effects and wind farm design, Controls in wind turbines, Fixed and variable speed operation, Offshore wind turbines, Joint wind and wave effects, Wind turbine economics - lifecycle cost, Grid integration and transmission.

Module V CH7003: Sustainable Energy Sources and Technologies II

(13) Photovoltaics, Prof. Iouri Gounko (13 lectures)

Photovoltaics, diodes and solar cells, Current- and voltage characteristics of solar cells, Fill factor, Equivalent circuit of a solar cell, Maximum energy efficiency of a solar cell, tandem cell, Solar collectors and solar concentrators, Flat plate collectors, their efficiency, gain and losses, Systems for concentration of solar radiation, Solar energy technologies, Definition of solar radiation fundamentals and models of solar radiation, Photovoltaics, Silicon based solar cells: Amorphous and Crystalline Silicon solar cells: Cadmium telluride solar cells (CdTe); Copper indium gallium selenide solar cells (CI(G)S); Gallium arsenide germanium solar cell (GaAs); Organic solar cells (OPV); Dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC); Quantum dots for solar power; Hybrid perovskite based solar cells.

(14) Biomass, Biofuels and Hydrogen, Prof. Max Garcia Melchor (14 lectures)

Chemical composition and structural properties of biomass; Lignin, Hemicellulose and Cellulose. Thermochemical, catalytic and biological technologies for their conversion to energy products, Energy crops and biomass as a fuel, 1st, 2nd and 3rd generation biofuels, Production and properties of; Bioethanol, Biodiesel, Biobutanol, Methanol, Dimethyl ether, Oligomerized large hydrocarbons, Synethetic paraffinic kerosene, Hydrotreated fatty acids and esters, A hydrogen economy, Methods and materials for hydrogen generation, storage and transport, Anaerobic digestion and landfill gases, Biomass and biofuel sustainability.

(15) Carbon Dioxide and Capture & Storage, Prof. Juan Diego Rodriguez-Blanco (13 lectures)

Earth and the carbon cycle: properties of CO2, CO2 in the atmosphere and climate change, Role and evolution of CO2 in the atmosphere at geological timescales, Projected CO2 levels in the future and potential consequences, Natural sources of CO2, Biomineralization processes and CO2, Major sources of anthropogenic CO2 emissions: fossil fuels, steel and cement plants, Environmental effect of other energy related emissions (NOx, SOx), Nanoparticulates and trace metals, Carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies: Transport of CO2: Pipelines, Ships, Risk and Safety; Carbon Capture from power generation (pre-combustion, post-combustion, oxy-combustion, chemical looping); Carbon capture from industrial processes (cement, steel, oil, natural gas); Mineral carbonation processes (direct and indirect routes; gas-solid and liquid-solid routes; Natural minerals of interest for mineral carbonation); Storage of CO2: Metal organic frameworks, Geological storage and mineral trapping, Storage in seawater, Biological storage, Terrestrial (agricultural) storage, Algal biomass, etc. Long-term stability of stored CO2. New directions of research in CCS technology: new developments and innovation. Time frame for new technology implementation.

Module VI GL7001: Managing the Impact of Energy Utilisation

(16) Raw Materials and Natural Resource Management, Prof. Sean McClenaghan (15 lectures)

Global geology, Natural occurrence of energy resources and Extraction logistics of; Oil, Uranium, Conventional and unconventional (shale) natural gas, Coal, Ores as well as critical raw materials (metals), Identification and evaluation of viable mining locations, Methods of extraction; Concentration, Smelting and refining, Reclamation and decommissioning of mine sites, Mineral geochemistry and metallurgy, Importance of recovering energy critical elements (Te, Ge, Se, Ga, Sb, Sn & In) from mine wastes, Realities of recovering strategic elements from manufactured goods, Resource cycles, Market effects on mining and exploration sectors.

(17) Energy Critical Raw Materials, Prof. Balz Kamber (15 lectures)

Why critical raw materials are important, Assessing criticality; Geological and technical availability, Identification of raw materials deemed critical to the EU and the world, Economic importance and supply risk, Main producers of critical raw materials. Techniques for Quantitative Analysis and Characterisation of raw and processed materials relevant to energy; optical methods -cross-polarised and reflected light microscopy, qualitative scanning electron microscope (SEM) based methods -secondary electron imaging, back-scattered electron imaging, cathodoluminescence imaging), quantitative in situ chemical analysis -SEM energy-dispersive spectroscopy, laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, quantitative structural characterisation -X-ray diffraction and Raman, and automated statistical metal characterisation -mineral liberation analysis.

(18) Nuclear Safety and Environmental Impact, Dr. Kilian Smith (10 lectures)

Nuclear Fuel Cycles, Radiation Protection, Safety Analysis, Defence in Depth, Strategic Environmental Assessment, Nuclear Accidents (Case Studies), Environmental impact of nuclear facilities (routine and accidental), Emergency Planning and Response.