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Referencing

Referencing should take the form outlined below:

Citations in the essay

  1. One author, one publication.
    The surname of the author, a comma, and the year of publication, all enclosed in brackets.
    For example:
    Denmark has shown that Danish women can show equal labour force participation, given state supported care (Moss, 1988).
  2. One author, more than one publication.
    The surname of the author, a comma, the year of the first publication, a comma, and the year of the second publication, all enclosed in brackets. For example:
    …now women's domesticity is often seen as a result of gender segregation in waged work (Walby, 1986, 1990).
  3. More than one author, one publication to each.
    The surname of the first author, a comma, the year of the first author's publication, a semi-colon, the surname of the second author, a comma, and the year of the second author's publication, all enclosed in brackets. For example:
    In most non-industrial societies, however, women make a substantial contribution to subsistence, and in many they are the main food providers (Rogers, 1980; Moore, 1988).
  4. More than one author, more than one publication to each.
    The procedures are joined. For example:
    It can also be seen to be about men as a class taking control of women's reproductive activities as husbands/male partners/fathers; scientists/medical practitioners; businessmen; and governmental leaders (Hamner, 1981, 1983; Allen, 1986, 1988).
  5. Co-authorship.
    In sociology it often happens that publications are co-authored. In this case, the two surnames of the authors are joined by an 'and'. For example:
    More women are staying single and more are living with men without formalizing their relationship in marriage (Kiernan and Wicks, 1990).
  6. Prolific authors.
    Some authors are prolific and may write several books or articles in the same year. If you are dealing with such an author, then add an 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., as required, to the year of publication. You must specify in your bibliography which letter corresponds to which publication of that year. For example:
    Others claim that the evidence for this is unclear and unconvincing (Segal, 1991b).

Quotations in your essay

  1. Non-indented quotations.
    The quotation is placed, after a colon, in single inverted commas, followed by the surname of the author, a comma, the year of publication, a colon, and the page number, all enclosed in brackets.For example:
    Such charges, however, should not be understood as a result of capitalism alone, or simply as social structures responding to the 'needs' of capital: 'These processes of transformation have been equally determined… by the existing forms of kinship and gender relations' (Moore, 1988: 116).
  2. Indented quotations.
    The quotation is indented (i.e. set apart from your essay, which should end on a colon, by a line, and brought in four or five spaces), and then as (a) Note: all long quotations in your essay should be indented. For example:
    Here racism and sexism converge in particularly damaging definitions of black womanhood: Afro-Carribean women are stereotyped matriarchs, or seen as single mothers who expose their children to a stream of different men while Asian women are construed as passive victims… identified as failures because of their lack of English and refusal to integrate. (Parmar, 1988:199)

Citations in your Bibliography

  1. Authored books.
    The surname of the author, a comma, the initial of the author's first name, the year of publication, a full stop, the title of the book either underlined or, if using a word processor, italicised, a full stop, the place of publication, a colon, and the name of the publisher. For example:
    Habermas, J. 1971. Towards a Rational Society. London: Heinemann.
  2. Co-authored books.
    The authors' names are joined with an 'and'. For example:
    Morely, A. and Stanely, L. 1988. The Life and Death of Emily Wilding Davison. London: The Women's Press.
  3. Edited books
    Between the initial of the author's first name and the year of publication, insert '(ed.)'. For example:
    Moi, T. (ed.) 1987. French Feminist Thought: A Reader. Oxford: Blackwell.
  4. Co-edited books.
    The authors' names are joined by an 'and', and '(eds)' is inserted. For example:
    Snitow, A. and Stansell, C. (eds) 1984. Desire: The Politics of Sexuality. London: Virago.
  5. Prolific authors.
    Add an 'a', 'b', 'c', etc., as required, to the year of publication. For example:
    Phillips, A. 1987a. Divided Loyalties: Dilemmas of Sex and Class. London: Virago.
    Phillips, A. 1987b. Feminism and Equality. Oxford: Blackwell.
  6. Articles in journals.
    The surname of the author, a comma, the initial of the author's first name, the year of publication, a full stop, the title of the article in single inverted commas, a full stop, the title of the journal either underlined or, if using a word processor, italicised, the volume of the journal, a colon, the number of the journal, a colon, and the page numbers of the article. For example:
    Hull, F. 1982. 'Organizing for Innovation: beyond Nurns and Stalker's organic type'. Sociology 16:4:564-77
  7. Articles in edited books.
    The surname of the author, a comma, the initial of the author's first name, the year of publication, a full stop, the title of the article in single inverted commas, a full stop, the word 'in', the name of the author of the book with first initial followed by surname, and then as above. For example:

    Rendal, M. 1985. 'The Winning of the Sex Discrimination Act' in M. Arnot (ed.) Race and Gender. Oxford: Pergamon.

  8. Online Articles
    Surname of the author, a comma, the initial of the author's first name, year of publication, a full stop, the title of the article in single inverted commas, a full stop, the name of website or publication, a full stop, [on-line], a comma, the website url, a full stop, accessed date in square brackets in D M YYYY format as below, a full stop
  9. Collins, S. 2015. 'Childcare funding to be focus of James Reilly group'. The Irish Times. [on-line], http://www.irishtimes.com/news/politics/childcare-funding-to-be-focus-of-james-reilly-group-1.2116245. [Accessed: 25 February 2015].

Using Statistics

Any statistical information given in essays must also be referenced.

Plagiarism and secondary quotation

Copying of work by published authors or other students through unattributed direct quotation is an unacceptable practice which will be penalised by the Department. All direct quotation must be attributed to the author in question and referenced as explained above.

Where you wish to quote from a secondary source, you must include both references in your text, i.e. both the source in which you found the quotation, and the source cited there, from which the quoted words had been taken.