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The Troika: The Interlocking Roles of Commission v Luxembourg & Belgium, Van Gend en Loos, and Costa v Enel in the Creation of the European Legal Order

William Phelan
Assistant Professor, Department of Political Science Trinity College Dublin

IIIS Discussion Paper No. 431

Through a comparison with dispute resolution procedures in NAFTA's Side Agreements, this paper demonstrates that three of the ECJ's most important decisions - Van Gend en Loos, Costa v. Enel, and Commission v. Luxembourg & Belgium - should be understood as combining to reorganize general international law's relationship between the EU member states and thus providing the foundations for the
EU's distinctive legal order.

European Law
International Law
NAFTA Side Agreements
Commission v. Luxembourg & Belgium
Van Gend en Loos



Last updated 28 August 2014 by IIIS (Email).