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EPAs and the Demise of the Commodity Protocols

Alan Matthews


With the entry into force of Economic Partnership Agreements (EPAs) between the EU and African, Caribbean and Pacific (ACP) countries at the beginning of 2008, the three commodity protocols attached, first, to the Lomé Conventions and, subsequently, the Cotonou Agreement which benefited ACP exporters of sugar, bananas and beef have been terminated or shortly will be. This paper reviews the reasons for the termination of these protocols, and investigates whether EPAs help to maintain the economic benefits they provided to ACP exporters or whether they accelerate the erosion of these benefits. We conclude that EPAs extend the benefits of the banana and beef protocols but that the ending of the sugar protocol has more ambiguous effects. Other changes separate from EPAs have also contributed to the erosion of the benefits provided by the protocols.


EU, ACP, commodity protocols, Cotonou, sugar, bananas, beef

Last updated 28 August 2014 by IIIS (Email).