Cara Martin
Assistant Professor, Histopathology
Assistant Professor, Molecular Medicine Ireland

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Varga N, Mózes J, Keegan H, White C, Kelly L, Pilkington L, Benczik M, Zsuzsanna S, Sobel G, Koiss R, Babarczi E, Nyíri M, Kovács L, Attila S, Kaltenecker B, Géresi A, Kocsis A, O'Leary J, Martin CM, Jeney C., The Value of a Novel Panel of Cervical Cancer Biomarkers for Triage of HPV Positive Patients and for Detecting Disease Progression., Pathology oncology research : POR, 23, (2), 2017, p295-305 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

Traynor D, Kearney P, Ramos I, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Lyng FM., A study of hormonal effects in cervical smear samples using Raman spectroscopy., Journal of biophotonics, 2017 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

Kearney P, Traynor D, Bonnier F, Lyng FM, O'Leary JJ, Martin CM., Raman spectral signatures of cervical exfoliated cells from liquid-based cytology samples., Journal of biomedical optics, 22, (10), 2017, p1-10 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

Ó Céilleachair A, O'Mahony JF, O'Connor M, O'Leary J, Normand C, Martin C, Sharp L., Health-related quality of life as measured by the EQ-5D in the prevention, screening and management of cervical disease: A systematic review., Quality of life research : an international journal of quality of life aspects of treatment, care and rehabilitation, 26, (11), 2017, p2885-2897 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

O'Connor M, O'Brien K, Waller J, Gallagher P, D'Arcy T, Flannelly G, Martin CM, McRae J, Prendiville W, Ruttle C, White C, Pilkington L, O'Leary JJ, Sharp L, Irish Cervical Screening Research Consortium (CERVIVA)., Physical after-effects of colposcopy and related procedures, and their inter-relationship with psychological distress: a longitudinal survey., BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 124, (9), 2017, p1402-1410 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

Woods RSR, Keegan H, White C, Tewari P, Toner M, Kennedy S, O'Regan EM, Martin CM, Timon CVI, O'Leary JJ., Cytokeratin 7 in Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Junctional Biomarker for Human Papillomavirus-Related Tumors., Cancer epidemiology, biomarkers & prevention : a publication of the American Association for Cancer Research, cosponsored by the American Society of Preventive Oncology, 26, (5), 2017, p702-710 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

White C, Bakhiet S, Bates M, Keegan H, Pilkington L, Ruttle C, Sharp L, O' Toole S, Fitzpatrick M, Flannelly G, O' Leary JJ, Martin CM. , Triage of LSIL/ASC-US with p16/Ki-67 dual staining and human papillomavirus testing: a 2-year prospective study. , Cytopathology, 27, (4), 2016, p269 - 276 Journal Article, 2016

O'Connor M, Waller J, Gallagher P, Martin CM, JO'Leary J, D'Arcy T, Prendiville W, Flannelly G, Sharp L., Exploring women's sensory experiences of undergoing colposcopy and related procedures: implications for preparatory sensory information provision., Journal of psychosomatic obstetrics and gynaecology, 37, (4), 2016, p137-146 Journal Article, 2016 DOI

O'Connor M, Gallagher P, Waller J, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Sharp L, Irish Cervical Screening Research Consortium (CERVIVA)., Adverse psychological outcomes following colposcopy and related procedures: a systematic review., BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 123, (1), 2016, p24-38 Journal Article, 2016 DOI

O'Connor M, O'Leary E, Waller J, Gallagher P, D'Arcy T, Flannelly G, Martin C.M, McRae J, Prendiville W, Ruttle C, White C, Pilkington L, O'Leary J.J, Sharp L, Trends in, and predictors of, anxiety and specific worries following colposcopy: A 12-month longitudinal study, Psycho-Oncology, 25, (5), 2016, p597 - 604 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

O'Connor M, Costello L, Murphy J, Prendiville W, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Sharp L, Influences on human papillomavirus (HPV)-related information needs among women having HPV tests for follow-up of abnormal cervical cytology., The journal of family planning and reproductive health care / Faculty of Family Planning & Reproductive Health Care, Royal College of Obstetricians & Gynaecologists, 41, (2), 2015, p134-141 Journal Article, 2015 DOI

Martin CM, Astbury K, Kehoe L, O'Crowley JB, O'Toole S, O'Leary JJ. The Use of MYBL2 as a Novel Candidate Biomarker of Cervical Cancer. in, editor(s)Daniel Keppler Athena W. Lin , Cervical Cancer. Methods in Molecular Biology, Springer New York, 2015, pp241 - 251, [1: Martin CM, Astbury K, Kehoe L, O'Crowley JB, O'Toole S, O'Leary JJ. ] Book Chapter, 2015

McEvoy LM, O'Toole SA, Spillane CD, Martin CM, Gallagher MF, Stordal B, Blackshields G, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ, Identifying novel hypoxia-associated markers of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer., BMC cancer, 15, 2015, p547 Journal Article, 2015

O'Connor M, Waller J, Gallagher P, Martin C.M, O'Leary J.J, D'Arcy , Prendiville W, Flannelly G, Sharp L, Understanding Women's Differing Experiences of Distress after Colposcopy: A Qualitative Interview Study, Women's Health Issues, 25, (5), 2015, p528 - 534 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

Gallagher MF, Salley Y, Spillane CD, Ffrench B, El Baruni S, Blacksheilds G, Smyth P, Martin C, Sheils O, Watson W, O'Leary JJ, Enhanced regulation of cell cycle and suppression of osteoblast differentiation molecular signatures by prostate cancer stem-like holoclones., Journal of clinical pathology, 68, (9), 2015, p692-702 Journal Article, 2015 DOI

Langhe R, Norris L, Saadeh FA, Blackshields G, Varley R, Harrison A, Gleeson N, Spillane C, Martin C, O'Donnell DM, D'Arcy T, O'Leary J, O'Toole S, A novel serum microRNA panel to discriminate benign from malignant ovarian disease., Cancer letters, 356, (2 Pt B), 2015, p628-36 Journal Article, 2015 DOI

O'Connor M, Costello L, Murphy J, Prendiville W, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Sharp L, 'I don't care whether it's HPV or ABC, I just want to know if I have cancer.' Factors influencing women's emotional responses to undergoing human papillomavirus testing in routine management in cervical screening: a qualitative study., BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 121, (11), 2014, p1421-9 Journal Article, 2014

d'Adhemar CJ, Spillane CD, Gallagher MF, Bates M, Costello KM, Barry-O'Crowley J, Haley K, Kernan N, Murphy C, Smyth PC, O'Byrne K, Pennington S, Cooke AA, Ffrench B, Martin CM, O'Donnell D, Hennessy B, Stordal B, Finn S, McCann A, Gleeson N, D'Arcy T, Flood B, O'Neill LA, Sheils O, O'Toole S, O'Leary JJ, The MyD88+ phenotype is an adverse prognostic factor in epithelial ovarian cancer., PloS one, 9, (6), 2014, pe100816 Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text

Loy A, McInerney J, Pilkington L, Keegan H, Delamere S, Martin CM, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ, Mulcahy F., Human papillomavirus DNA and mRNA prevalence and association with cervical cytological abnormalities in the Irish HIV population., International Journal of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and AIDS, 2014 Journal Article, 2014

Noninvasive Biomarkers in Ovarian Cancer in, editor(s)Debmalya Barh, Angelo Carpi, Mukesh Verma, Mehmet Gunduz , Cancer Biomarkers: Minimal and Noninvasive Early Diagnosis and Prognosis , CRC press, 2014, [O'Toole, SA, Ancuta, E, Langhe, R, Cahill, DJ, Murphy, M, Martin, C, McEvoy, L, Spillane, C, Sheils, O, Petricoin, E, Liotta, L, O'Leary JJ] Book Chapter, 2014

Keegan H, Pilkington L, McInerney J, Jeney C, Benczik M, Cleary S, von Bunau G, Turner M, D'Arcy T, O' Toole S, Pal-Szenthe B, Kaltenecker B, Mózes J, Kovács A, Solt A, Bolger N, O'Leary J, Martin C, Human papillomavirus detection and genotyping, by HC2, full-spectrum HPV and molecular beacon real-time HPV assay in an Irish colposcopy clinic., Journal of virological methods, 201, 2014, p93-100 Journal Article, 2014

Woods R, O'Regan EM, Kennedy S, Martin C, O'Leary JJ, Timon C, Role of human papillomavirus in oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: A review., World journal of clinical cases, 2, (6), 2014, p172-93 Journal Article, 2014

Rashid N, Nawaz H, Poon KW, Bonnier F, Bakhiet S, Martin C, O'Leary JJ, Byrne HJ, Lyng FM, Raman microspectroscopy for the early detection of pre-malignant changes in cervical tissue., Experimental and molecular pathology, 97, (3), 2014, p554-64 Journal Article, 2014

Bonnier,F, Traynor, D, Kearney, P, Clarke,C, Peter Knief, P Martin, C, O'Leary,J, Byrne HJ and Lyng, F, Processing ThinPrep Cervical Cytological Samples for Raman Spectroscopic Analysis., Analytical Methods, 6, (19), 2014, p7831 - 7841 Journal Article, 2014

White C, Keegan H, Pilkington L, Ruttle C, Kerr P, Sharp L, O'Toole S, Turner M, Prendiville W, D'Arcy T, Fitzpatrick M, Lenehan P, Flannelly G, O'Leary JJ, Martin CM, Evaluation of the clinical performance of the cobas 4800 HPV test in patients referred for colposcopy., Journal of clinical microbiology, 51, (10), 2013, p3415-7 Journal Article, 2013 TARA - Full Text DOI

Laios A, Mohamed BM, Kelly L, Flavin R, Finn S, McEvoy L, Gallagher M, Martin C, Sheils O, Ring M, Davies A, Lawson M, Gleeson N, D'Arcy T, d'Adhemar C, Norris L, Langhe R, Saadeh FA, O'Leary JJ, O'Toole SA, Pre-Treatment of Platinum Resistant Ovarian Cancer Cells with an MMP-9/MMP-2 Inhibitor Prior to Cisplatin Enhances Cytotoxicity as Determined by High Content Screening., International journal of molecular sciences, 14, (1), 2013, p2085-103 Journal Article, 2013 TARA - Full Text DOI

Tjalma WA, Fiander A, Reich O, Powell N, Nowakowski AM, Kirschner B, Koiss R, O'Leary J, Joura EA, Rosenlund M, Colau B, Schledermann D, Kukk K, Damaskou V, Repanti M, Vladareanu R, Kolomiets L, Savicheva A, Shipitsyna E, Ordi J, Molijn A, Quint W, Raillard A, Rosillon D, De Souza SC, Jenkins D, Holl K; HERACLES/SCALE Study Group., Differences in human papillomavirus type distribution in high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive cervical cancer in Europe., International Journal of Cancer, 132, (4), 2013, p854 - 867 Journal Article, 2013 DOI

Scharfe-Nugent A, Corr SC, Carpenter SB, Keogh L, Doyle B, Martin C, Fitzgerald KA, Daly S, O'Leary JJ, O'Neill LA, TLR9 provokes inflammation in response to fetal DNA: mechanism for fetal loss in preterm birth and preeclampsia., Journal of immunology (Baltimore, Md. : 1950), 188, (11), 2012 Journal Article, 2012 TARA - Full Text DOI

Furlong F, Fitzpatrick P, O'Toole S, Phelan S, McGrogan B, Maguire A, O'Grady A, Gallagher M, Prencipe M, McGoldrick A, McGettigan P, Brennan D, Sheils O, Martin C, W Kay E, O'Leary J, McCann A, Low MAD2 expression levels associate with reduced progression-free survival in patients with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer., Journal of Pathology, 226, (5), 2012, p746 - 755 Journal Article, 2012 DOI

Murphy MA, O'Connell DJ, O'Kane SL, O'Brien JK, O'Toole S, Martin C, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ, Cahill DJ, Epitope presentation is an important determinant of the utility of antigens identified from protein arrays in the development of autoantibody diagnostic assays, Journal of Proteomics, 75, (15), 2012, p4668 - 4675 Journal Article, 2012 TARA - Full Text

Gallagher MF, Heffron CC, Laios A, O'Toole SA, Ffrench B, Smyth PC, Flavin RJ, Elbaruni SA, Spillane CD, Martin CM, Sheils OM, O'Leary JJ, Suppression of cancer stemness p21-regulating mRNA and microRNA signatures in recurrent ovarian cancer patient samples., Journal of ovarian research, 5, (1), 2012, p2 Journal Article, 2012

McSherry LA, Dombrowski SU, Francis JJ, Murphy J, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Sharp L, Group A, 'It's a can of worms': understanding primary care practitioners' behaviours in relation to HPV using the theoretical domains framework., Implementation science : IS, 7, (1), 2012, p73 Journal Article, 2012

Astbury K, McEvoy L, Brian H, Spillane C, Sheils O, Martin C, O'Leary JJ, MYBL2 (B-MYB) in cervical cancer: putative biomarker., International journal of gynecological cancer : official journal of the International Gynecological Cancer Society, 21, (2), 2011, p206-12 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Karl Egan., Darragh Crowley., Paul Smyth, Sharon O'Toole, Cathy Spillane, Cara Martin, Michael Gallagher, Aoife Canney, Lucy Norris, Niamh Conlon, Lynda McEvoy2, Brendan Ffrench2, Britta Stordal, Helen Keegan, Stephen Finn, Victoria McEneaney, Alex Laios, Jens Ducre, Eimear Dunne, Leila Smith, Michael Berndt, Orla Sheils, Dermot Kenny, John O'Leary, Platelet Adhesion and Degranulation Induce Pro-Survival and Pro-Angiogenic Signalling in Ovarian Cancer Cells, PLoS ONE, 6, (10, e26125), 2011 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text

Ostrowska KM, Garcia A, Meade AD, Malkin A, Okewumi I, O'Leary JJ, Martin C, Byrne HJ, Lyng FM, Correlation of p16(INK4A) expression and HPV copy number with cellular FTIR spectroscopic signatures of cervical cancer cells., The Analyst, 136, (7), 2011, p1365-73 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text DOI

Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Histology of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and the role of biomarkers., Best practice & research. Clinical obstetrics & gynaecology, 25, (5), 2011, p605-15 Journal Article, 2011

Yusof A, Keegan H, Spillane CD, Sheils OM, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Zengerle R, Koltay P., Inkjet-like printing of single-cells., Lab on a Chip, 21, (11(14)), 2011, p2447 - 2454 Journal Article, 2011

Ostrowska KM, Malkin A, Meade A, O'Leary J, Martin C, Spillane C, Byrne HJ, Lyng FM., Investigation of the influence of high-risk human papillomavirus on the biochemical composition of cervical cancer cells using vibrational spectroscopy., Analyst., (Oct 21), 2010 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Kelly JG, Cheung KT, Martin C, O'Leary JJ, Prendiville W, Martin-Hirsch PL, Martin FL, A spectral phenotype of oncogenic human papillomavirus-infected exfoliative cervical cytology distinguishes women based on age., Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 411, (15-16), 2010, p1027-1033 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Castleman's Disease. in, editor(s) , Haematological Pathology, Springer Press, 2010, [R.J. Flavin, C.M. Martin, O. Sheils, J.J .O'Leary.] Book Chapter, 2010

Mocanu E, Shattock R, Barton D, Rogers M, Conroy R, Sheils O, Collins C, Martin C, Harrison R, O'Leary J, All azoospermic males should be screened for cystic fibrosis mutations before intracytoplasmic sperm injection., Fertility and sterility, 2010 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Sheedy FJ, Palsson-McDermott E, Hennessy EJ, Martin C, O'Leary JJ, Ruan Q, Johnson DS, Chen Y, O'Neill LA., Negative regulation of TLR4 via targeting of the proinflammatory tumor suppressor PDCD4 by the microRNA miR-21, Nature Immunology, 11, (2), 2010, p141-147 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Keegan H, Mc Inerney J, Pilkington L, Grønn P, Silva I, Karlsen F, Bolger N, Logan C, Furuberg L, O'Leary J, Martin C, Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens., Journal of virological methods, 155, (1), 2009, p61-6 Journal Article, 2009 DOI

Baier T, Hansen-Hagge TE, Gransee R, Crombé A, Schmahl S, Paulus C, Drese KS, Keegan H, Martin C, O'Leary JJ, Furuberg L, Solli L, Grønn P, Falang IM, Karlgård A, Gulliksen A, Karlsen F, Hands-free sample preparation platform for nucleic acid analysis., Lab on a chip, 9, (23), 2009, p3399-405 Journal Article, 2009 TARA - Full Text DOI

Gene expression profiling in cervical cancer: identification of novel markers for disease diagnosis and therapy in, Methods Mol Biol, 2009, pp333 - 359, [Martin CM, Astbury K, McEvoy L, O'Toole S, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ] Book Chapter, 2009 DOI

Keegan, H., Mc Inerney, J., Pilkington, L., Grønn, P., Silva, I., Karlsen, F., Bolger, N., (...), Martin, C. , Comparison of HPV detection technologies: Hybrid capture 2, PreTect HPV-Proofer and analysis of HPV DNA viral load in HPV16, HPV18 and HPV33 E6/E7 mRNA positive specimens, Journal of Virological Methods , 155, (1), 2009, p61-66 Journal Article, 2009 DOI

Gallagher MF, Flavin RJ, Elbaruni SA, McInerney JK, Smyth PC, Salley YM, Vencken SF, O'Toole SA, Laios A, Lee MY, Denning K, Li J, Aherne ST, Lao KQ, Martin CM, Sheils OM, O'Leary JJ, Regulation of microRNA biosynthesis and expression in 2102Ep embryonal carcinoma stem cells is mirrored in ovarian serous adenocarcinoma patients., Journal of ovarian research, 2, 2009, p19 Journal Article, 2009 TARA - Full Text DOI

Laios, A., O'Toole, S., Flavin, R., Martin, C., Kelly, L., Ring, M., Finn, S.P., (...), O'Leary, J. , Potential role of miR-9 and miR-223 in recurrent ovarian cancer , Molecular Cancer, 7, 2008, part. no. 35 Journal Article, 2008 DOI TARA - Full Text

Flavin RJ, Smyth PC, Finn SP, Laios A, O'Toole SA, Barrett C, Ring M, Denning KM, Li J, Aherne ST, Aziz NA, Alhadi A, Sheppard BL, Loda M, Martin C, Sheils OM, O'Leary JJ, Altered eIF6 and Dicer expression is associated with clinicopathological features in ovarian serous carcinoma patients., Modern pathology : an official journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc, 21, (6), 2008, p676-84 Journal Article, 2008 DOI

Laios, A., O'Toole, S.A., Flavin, R., Martin, C., Ring, M., Gleeson, N., D'Arcy, T., (...), O' Leary, J.J. , An integrative model for recurrence in ovarian cancer , Molecular Cancer, 7, 2008, part. no. 8 Journal Article, 2008 DOI

Crowley A, Martin C, Fitzpatrick P, Sheils O, O'Herlihy C, O'Leary JJ, Byrne BM, Free fetal DNA is not increased before 20 weeks in intrauterine growth, Prenat Diagn., 27, (2), 2007, p174 - 179 Journal Article, 2007 DOI

Martin CM, Kehoe L, Spillane CO, O'Leary JJ., Gene discovery in cervical cancer : towards diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers., Molecular Diagnosis and Therapy , 11, (5), 2007, p277-90 Journal Article, 2007

Heffron, C.C.B.B., Gallagher, M.F., Guenther, S., Sherlock, J., Henfrey, R., Martin, C., Sheils, O., O'Leary, J.J. , Global mRNA analysis to determine a transcriptome profile of cancer stemness in a mouse model , Anticancer Research, 27, (3A), 2007, p1319-1324 Journal Article, 2007 URL

O'Toole SA, Dunn E, Sheppard BL, Klocker H, Bektic J, Smyth P, Martin C, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ, Genome-wide analysis of deoxyribonucleic acid in endometrial cancer using comparative genomic hybridization microarrays, International Journal of Gynecological Cancer , 16, (2), 2006, p834 - 842 Journal Article, 2006 DOI

Hughes CA, Murphy A, Martin C, Ring M, Fox E, Sheils O, Loftus B, O'Leary, JJ, Topoisomerase II-Alpha expression increases with increasing Gleason score and with hormone insensitivity in prostate carcinoma. ., Journal of Clinical Patholology, 59, (7), 2006, p721 - 724 Journal Article, 2006

Hughes C, Murphy A, Martin C, Fox E, Ring M, Sheils O, Loftus B, O'Leary J, Topoisomerase II-alpha expression increases with increasing Gleason score and with hormone insensitivity in prostate carcinoma, Journal of Clinical Pathology, 59, (7), 2006, p721 - 724 Journal Article, 2006 DOI

.Astbury*, C.M. Martin*, M.Ring, L. Pilkington, N. Bolger, O.Sheils, J.J. O'Leary., Future Molecular Aspects of Cervical Cytology, Current Diagnostic Pathology, 12, 2006, p104 - 113 Journal Article, 2006

Cara M Martin, Katharine Astbury, John J. O'Leary, Molecular Profiling of Cervical Neoplasia, Expert Reviews in Molecular Diagnostics, 6, (2), 2006, p217 - 229 Journal Article, 2006

In-cell PCR. in, editor(s)Crocker, J. Burnett, D. , The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2005, pp505 - 513, [O'Leary, J.J., Martin, C.M., Sheils, O.] Book Chapter, 2005

Murphy, N., Ring, M., Heffron, C.C.B.B., Martin, C.M., McGuinness, E., Sheils, O., O'Leary, J.J., Quantitation of CDC6 and MCM5 mRNA in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix, Modern Pathology , 18, (6), 2005, p844-849 Journal Article, 2005 DOI

Microarrays and functional genomics. in, editor(s)Crocker, J. Burnett, D. , In The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2005, pp515 - 521, [Sheils, O., Smyth, P., Sherlock, J., Martin, C.M., Finn, S., O'Regan, E.M., O'Leary, J.J.] Book Chapter, 2005

Murphy N, Ring M, Heffron CC, King B, Killalea AG, Hughes C, Martin CM, McGuinness E, Sheils O, O'Leary JJ. , p16INK4A, CDC6, and MCM5: predictive biomarkers in cervical preinvasive neoplasia and cervical cancer. , Journal of Clinical Patholology, 58, (5), 2005, p525 - 534 Journal Article, 2005

Cotter AM, Martin CM, O'Leary JJ, Daly SF, Increased fetal RhD gene in the maternal circulation in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of pre-eclampsia, British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 112, (5), 2005, p584 - 587 Journal Article, 2005

Murphy N, Ring M, Heffron CC, Martin CM, McGuinness E, Sheils O, O'leary JJ, Quantitation of CDC6 and MCM5 mRNA in cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and invasive squamous cell carcinoma of the cervix. , Modern Pathology, 18, (6), 2005, p844 - 849 Journal Article, 2005

Comparative Genome Hybridisation Microarrays in, editor(s)Crocker, J. Burnett, D. , The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2005, pp523 - 528, [O'Regan, E, Martin, C.M., Finn, S, Smyth, P., Flavin, R., O'Leary, J.J. Sheils, O.] Book Chapter, 2005

DNA Sequencing in, editor(s)Crocker, J. Burnett, D. , The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2005, pp531 - 539, [Martin, C.M., Picton, S.J. O'Leary, ] Book Chapter, 2005

Real Time TaqMan® PCR Technology in, Crocker, J. Burnett, D , The Science of Laboratory Diagnosis, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2005, pp495 - 504, [Martin, C.M., Sheils, O, O'Leary, J.J. ] Book Chapter, 2005

Hughes C, Murphy A, Martin C, Sheils O, O'Leary J, Molecular pathology of prostate cancer, Journal of Clinical Pathology, 58, (7), 2005, p673 - 684 Journal Article, 2005 DOI

Bofin, A.M., Ytterhus, B., Martin, C., O'Leary, J.J., Hagmar, B.M., Detection and quantitation of HER-2 gene amplification and protein expression in breast carcinoma , American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 122, (1), 2004, p110-119 Journal Article, 2004 DOI

Cotter A.M. Martin, C.M., O'Leary, J.J. Daly, S.F., Increased fetal DNA trafficking in early pregnancy is associated with an increased risk of pre- eclampsia., American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 191, (2), 2004, p515 - 520 Journal Article, 2004

Turner, M.J., Martin, C.M., O'Leary, J.J., Letter to the Editor [2] , 2003, - 118 Miscellaneous, 2003 DOI

TaqMan Technology and Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction in, editor(s)Crocker, J., Murray, P.G. , Molecular Biology in Cellular Pathology , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. , 2003, [O'Leary, J.J., Sheils, O, Martin, C., Crowley A] Book Chapter, 2003

The In-Situ Polymerase Chain Reaction. in, editor(s)Crocker, J., Murray, P.G. , Molecular Biology in Cellular Pathology , John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., 2003, [O'Leary, J.J., Martin, C., Sheils, O] Book Chapter, 2003

N. Murphy, M. Ring, A. G. Killalea, V. Uhlmann, M. O'Donovan, F. Mulcahy, M. Turner, E. McGuinness, M. Griffin, C. Martin, O. Sheils and J. J. O'Leary, p16INK4A as a marker for cervical dyskaryosis: CIN and cGIN in cervical biopsies and ThinPrep smears, Journal of Clinical Pathology, 56, (1), 2003, p56-63 Journal Article, 2003 DOI URL

M. J. Turner, C. M. Martin and J. J. O'Leary, Detection of fetal Rhesus D gene in whole blood of women booking for routine antenatal care, European journal of obstetrics, gynecology, and reproductive biology, 108, (1), 2003, p29-32 Journal Article, 2003 URL DOI

Blots dots, amplification and sequencing. in, editor(s)Cullinane, C. J., Burchill, S.A., Squire, J.A., O'Leary, J.J. , Molecular Biology and Pathology of Paediatric Cancer, Oxford University Press. , 2003, [O'Leary, J.J., Martin, C., Sheils, O. ] Book Chapter, 2003

C. M. Martin, V. Uhlmann, A. Killalea, O. Sheils and J. J. O'Leary, Detection of measles virus in children with ileo-colonic lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, enterocolitis and developmental disorder, Molecular psychiatry, 7 Suppl 2, 2002, pS47-s48 Journal Article, 2002 DOI

V. Uhlmann, C. M. Martin, O. Sheils, L. Pilkington, I. Silva, A. Killalea, S. B. Murch, J. Walker-Smith, M. Thomson, A. J. Wakefield and J. J. O'Leary, Potential viral pathogenic mechanism for new variant inflammatory bowel disease, Molecular pathology, 55, (2), 2002, p84-90 Journal Article, 2002 URL DOI

P. Smyth, O. Sheils, S. Finn, C. Martin, J. O'Leary and E. C. Sweeney, Real-time quantitative analysis of E-cadherin expression in ret/PTC-1-activated thyroid neoplasms, International Journal of Surgical Pathology , 9, (4), 2001, p265-272 Journal Article, 2001 URL

V. Uhlmann, M. Prasad, I. Silva, K. Luettich, L. Grande, L. Alonso, M. Thisted, K. J. Pluzek, J. Gorst, M. Ring, M. Sweeney, C. Kenny, C. Martin, J. Russell, N. Bermingham, M. O'Donovan, O. Sheils and J. J. O'Leary, Improved in situ detection method for telomeric tandem repeats in metaphase spreads and interphase nuclei, Molecular pathology, 53, (1), 2000, p48-50 Journal Article, 2000 DOI URL

J. O'Leary, M. Kennedy, D. Howells, I. Silva, V. Uhlmann, K. Luttich, S. Biddolph, S. Lucas, J. Russell, N. Bermingham, M. O'Donovan, M. Ring, C. Kenny, M. Sweeney, O. Sheils, C. Martin, S. Picton and K. Gatter, Cellular localisation of HHV-8 in Castleman's disease: is there a link with lymph node vascularity?, Journal of Clinical Pathology - Molecular Pathology, 53, (2), 2000, p69-76 Journal Article, 2000 URL DOI

J. J. O'Leary, M. Kennedy, K. Luttich, V. Uhlmann, I. Silva, J. Russell, O. Sheils, M. Ring, M. Sweeney, C. Kenny, N. Bermingham, C. Martin, M. O'Donovan, D. Howells, S. Picton and S. B. Lucas, Localisation of HHV-8 in AIDS related lymphadenopathy, Molecular Pathology, 53, (1), 2000, p43-47 Journal Article, 2000 DOI URL

Martin C, Roberts D, van Der Weide M, Rossau R, Jannes G, Smith T, Maher M, Development of a PCR-based line probe assay for identification of fungal pathogens., Journal of clinical microbiology, 38, (10), 2000, p3735-42 Journal Article, 2000

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

Martin C, Astbury, K, O'Leary, JJ. , Molecular Biomarkers in Cervical Cancer, Cancerwise, 4, (2), 2005, p15 - 19 Journal Article, 2005

Research Expertise

Projects

  • Title
    • CERVIVA-Vax: Monitoring the impact of HPV vaccination in Ireland
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board, Ireland
  • Date From
    • 01/02/2018
  • Date To
    • 31/01/2022
  • Title
    • Enhancing the Evidence Base for Cost-Effectiveness Analysis in Ireland: Building Improvements from the Intervention-Specific to System-Wide Levels
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board, Ireland
  • Date From
    • 01/07/2018
  • Date To
    • 30/06/2022
  • Title
    • CERVIVA: The HPV Educate Project
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board, Ireland
  • Date From
    • 01/12/2017
  • Date To
    • 30/11/2018
  • Title
    • What influences cervical screening uptake in older women and how can screening programmes translate this knowledge into behaviour changing strategies? A CERVIVA-CervicalCheck co-production project
  • Summary
    • and mortality. To achieve these benefits, high coverage is essential. In Ireland, the coverage target is 80%. While overall coverage has risen (from 61% to 79%) since the programme started in 2008, it has consistently been lower in older (50-60 years) than younger (25-49 years) women. This distinctive pattern is not seen in other countries with organised programmes and the reasons for it are unknown. Women in their early 50s are at risk of developing cervical cancer and screening at that age substantially reduces cancer risk for the subsequent 30 years. Thus, it is important to attain high screening coverage in older women. This CERVIVA-CervicalCheck co-production project will generate evidence on the influences on cervical screening participation among older women in Ireland, to inform development and implementation of evidence-based strategies to increase screening coverage in this group. A mixed-methods design will be used, underpinned by a theoretical framework of behaviour change. Phase 1 will involve in-depth interviews exploring influences on, barriers to, and enablers of, cervical screening participation; older and younger women and women with adequate and inadequate screening histories will be compared. Phase 2 will involve a postal survey of older women, comparing those with adequate and inadequate screening histories, to identify the most important influences on screening participation and inter-relationships between these. Phase 3 will triangulate phase 1 and 2 results and undertake a behavioural analysis to begin to generate evidence-based solutions for how screening participation may be changed. The findings will be translated by the National Screening Service into strategies to improve participation in older women, thereby optimising effectiveness of cervical screening in Ireland and delivering health gains for individual women and the population. The knowledge gained may also be applicable to other screening programmes in Ireland.
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board, Ireland
  • Date From
    • 03/10/2017
  • Date To
    • 02/09/2019
  • Title
    • CERVIVA studentship for ECHO study
  • Summary
    • Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a collective term for a range of cancers arising in the mucosal lining at various sites in the head and neck, including the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. It is the sixth most common cancer in the world, with more than 630,000 new cases diagnosed each year and 350,000 deaths. In Ireland, more than 400 new cases of HNC present annually. HNC was traditionally considered to be a disease of the elderly and of men, with many cases believed to be due to cumulative exposure to tobacco and alcohol. However, in North America and Europe incidence rates have been increasing over the past few decades, especially in younger people and in women- populations less likely to have strong histories of tobacco or alcohol exposure. The rising incidence has tended to be limited to particular sites, most notably squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx, tonsil and tongue. These trends have pointed to the emergence of a new risk factor- HPV. HPV DNA has been found to be present in a significant proportion of HNCs. In a major meta-analysis published in 2005, 36% of cancers of the oropharynx (including the tonsil) were HPV positive (Kreimer 2005) and, in a more recent meta-analysis, HPV16 accounted for 96% of HPV-positive squamous cell carcinomas of the oropharynx (Mehanna 2012). In a major meta-analysis published in 2014, 45.8% of cancers of the oropharynx (including the tonsil) were HPV positive (Ndiaye et al). The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has concluded that there is strong epidemiological evidence for a casual role for HPV16 in the aetiology of cancers in the oropharynx and tonsil. Evidence around cancers of the oral cavity and larynx are more controversial. In the 2005 meta-analysis 24% of these cancers were HPV positive. However results of case-control studies have been inconsistent and the range in prevalence in individual studies is wide. Results of various studies based on inferred HPV status, and some clinical trials of oropharyngeal squamous cell cancers, suggest that patients with HPV-positive cancers have a better prognosis than HPV-negative cancers. If confirmed at the population level, these observations raise the possibility that HPV-related cancers may be treated less aggressively (Arbyn 2011). There are significant uncertainties in the evidence-base around HPV in HNC. Studies have been conducted in a limited number of populations and many have been small and included selected samples. Prevalence of HPV positivity at specific sites and sub-sites is uncertain, especially over time. While HPV16 has been reasonably well investigated, the prevalence of other HPV types is less clearly established. Moreover, the impact of HPV status on survival at various sites in the head and neck requires further exploration. This study will generate the first data on HPV prevalence and genotype distribution, and associations between HPV status and outcome, in head and neck cancers in Ireland. Given the potential impact HPV vaccination may have on these cancers this is an essential piece of research.
  • Funding Agency
    • The Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital
  • Date From
    • 01/04/2016
  • Date To
    • 31/03/2019
  • Title
    • CERVIVA: Making Connections and Creating Impact
  • Summary
    • The goal of CERVIVA's education and outreach programme is to create awareness, inform and effectively engage the public, health care professionals and healthcare providers on public health issues related to HPV associated diseases and on the specific research programmes underway within CERVIVA, which are addressing some of these issues. Our goal is to motivate and engage the general public and health care providers to actively participate in the research, which will ultimately inform cancer prevention strategies in Ireland. We will achieve this goal by engaging in a series of education and outreach activities with key stakeholders, including the general public, CervicalCheck and The National Cancer Control Programme, and health care providers. Our education and outreach programme will provide innovative solutions including; running a National HPV Awareness Day; production of a CERVIVA infomercial which can be shown in clinic waiting rooms and on our website; developing a mobile website; hosting a series of public talks at town hall events around the country; and producing an annual CERVIVA newsletter. For more information on our research and education and outreach initiatives please see our website http://www.cerviva.ie.
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board, Ireland
  • Date From
    • 01/12/2016
  • Date To
    • 31/01/2017
  • Title
    • CERVIVA: From episodic care to disease prevention and management: Developing analytical skills and interdisciplinary learning from the case of HPV related cancers.
  • Summary
    • The CERVIVA ICE programme represents an integrated inter-disciplinary proposal that is transformative and capacity-enhancing for 3 Fellows working in 3 key areas of health services research: epidemiology, economics and health psychology/intervention development. The application builds on substantial existing capacity and expertise within the internationally recognised CERVIVA research consortium (www.cerviva.ie) and extends the coverage of its research effort by addressing a series of important knowledge gaps within cervical pre-cancer/cancer and Human papillomavirus (HPV)-associated head and neck cancer [HNSCC]; these knowledge gaps also represent important challenges for policy-makers, service providers and health professionals. Through an integrated interdisciplinary programme, the fellows will seek to derive significant outputs in three areas: Area 1 (Epidemiology): Advancing the understanding of the natural history of HPV infection in the oral cavity (prevalence, persistence, clearance); developing a mathematical-biological model of the natural history of HPV infection in head and neck cancer; and extended longitudinal analysis of biomarkers for triage in cervical pre-cancer. Area 2 (Health economics): Assessing the cost-effectiveness of novel biomarkers in cervical cancer prevention; and quantification of the differences in costs and effect of different strategies for the treatment of head and neck cancer, focusing on the potential gains from early detection. Area 3 (Health psychology/intervention development): Developing and testing theorybased interventions to: reduce adverse psychological after-effects in women undergoing colposcopy and related procedures; and support health professionals in discussing HPV with head and neck cancer patients. The programme places significant emphasis on advanced skills development, career training, academic placement and capacity enhancement. Ultimately it will develop individuals with the potential to become future leaders in health services research as well as improving health services and health in Ireland.
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board
  • Date From
    • 14/09/2015
  • Date To
    • 13/01/2019
  • Title
    • CERVIVA 2: building capacity and advancing research and patient care in cervical screening and other HPV associated diseases in Ireland.
  • Summary
    • Human Papillomavirus [HPV] is the primary aetiological agent in the pathogenesis of cervical cancer and pre-cancer. HPV is causally implicated in other cancers, including head and neck cancers. Prophylactic HPV vaccination is being introduced as a primary cervical cancer prevention strategy in many countries including Ireland. This presents new challenges for health service providers. The proposed programme will address several of these challenges through the highly successful and dynamic multidisciplinary CERVIVA consortium, supported by a national and international collaborator network. Workpackage 1 will evaluate strategies for triage of women with a HPV-positive primary screening test. Residual LBC samples from around 13,000 women undergoing routine screening will be screened for HPV and, in HPV-positive women, a molecular panel of tests will be evaluated: HPV16/18 genotyping, E6/E7mRNA, p16INK4a/ki67, and TOPO2A/MCM2 [ProExC]. Test performance for detection of CIN3 over 5-years will be evaluated. Workpackage 2 will determine the optimal cervical screening strategy in the HPV vaccination era. Mathematical models will be used to evaluate, epidemiologically and economically, [a] the impact on performance of current cervical screening protocols of entry of HPV-vaccinated women into screening; and [b] alternative screening strategies for a mixed population of vaccinated and un-vaccinated women. Workpackage 3 will evaluate the novel screening tool, RAMAN spectroscopy. A within-subject trial of 3000 women referred for colposcopy will be conducted, comparing spectroscopy and cytology for detection of CIN. Workpackage 4 involves a population-based study of the epidemiology of HPV infection in head and neck cancers. HPV prevalence/genotypes will be assessed in head and neck tumour specimens; specifically oropharyngeal, oral cavity and laryngeal cancer, identified via the National Cancer Registry. Treatment and outcomes will be compared between HPV-positive and negative cases. This programme will inform cancer prevention policy and practice in Ireland and internationally and, ultimately, improve health outcomes.
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board
  • Date From
    • 1/04/2013
  • Date To
    • 30/03/2019
  • Title
    • CERVIVA 2: building capacity and advancing research and patient care in cervical screening in Ireland.
  • Funding Agency
    • Health Research Board, Ireland
  • Date From
    • 01/09/2011
  • Date To
    • 31/08/2014
  • Title
    • Systems biology approaches to cervical pre-cancer and cancer SYSTEMCERV
  • Funding Agency
    • European Union 7th Framework Programme.
  • Date From
    • 1/11/2012
  • Date To
    • 31/10/2014
  • Title
    • 'Molecular Pap test' for cervical cancer screening - detecting HPV infection and cellular abnormalities in exfoliated cervical cells
  • Funding Agency
    • Enterprise Ireland
  • Date From
    • 2011
  • Date To
    • 2014
  • Title
    • Non-coding miRNAs as regulators of chemoresistance in ovarian cancer,
  • Summary
  • Funding Agency
    • Royal City of Dublin Hospital Trust Fund
  • Date From
    • 2011
  • Date To
    • 2014
  • Title
    • Biomedical Diagnostics Institute 2 [BDI2] SFI CSET ONC1 Programme
  • Funding Agency
    • Science Foundation Ireland
  • Date From
    • 2010
  • Date To
    • 2015
  • Title
    • HPV mRNA and p16 INK4a detection for improved diagnosis and management of cervical neoplasia in smokers.
  • Summary
    • To evaluate a combined HPV mRNA and p16INK4a detection approach for detecting high grade cervical disease in women referred to colposcopy resulting in improved patient management and reduced costs to healthcare providers. Specific aims: 1. To define a consistent, accurate and adequate scoring mechanism for microscopic interpretation of p16INK4a immunohistochemistry and immunocytochemistry. 2. To correlate expression of p16INK4a expression with expression of HPV E6/E7 mRNA in cytological smear specimens and urinary cotinine levels in women attending colposcopy for management of low and high grade cervical lesions. 3. To correlate p16INK4a, HPV E6/E7 mRNA expression and urinary cotinine levels in cytological smear and urine specimens with histological specimens from the same patients. 4. To determine the PPV and specificity of p16INK4a and HPV mRNA detection at time of referral to colposcopy for predicting disease outcome.
  • Funding Agency
    • Cancer Research Ireland
  • Date From
    • 1st Oct 2009
  • Date To
    • 30th Sept 2012
  • Title
    • Platform for Advanced Single Cell-Manipulation and Analysis
  • Summary
    • Project Goals: To develop PASCA a Platform for Advance Single Cell-Manipulation and Analysis (PASCA), which is a novel approach to perform cell research or cell based experiments with single cells instead of ensembles (batches) of cells. Project Aims: Firstly to establish and validate the PASCA platform using the SCM instrument as the key enabling technology. Secondly, scientific results will be obtained in the framework of the life science applications realized by the PASCA platform. The application, for the first time will allow multi-dimensional characterisation of isolated pre-cancer and cancer cells from complex cell populations.
  • Funding Agency
    • European Union FP7 Programme
  • Date From
    • 1st Sept 2010
  • Date To
    • 31st August 2013
  • Title
    • A novel tool for cervical cancer screening based on low resolution Raman spectroscopy, CERVASSIST.
  • Summary
    • To develop a robust commercial product for rapid and low cost cervical cancer screening based on a commercially available micro Raman system. Project Aims: 1.To conduct a large scale study on low resolution Raman spectroscopy for discriminating between normal and abnormal cervical tissue and smear samples. 2.To use multivariate techniques to develop an algorithm to classify normal, CIN I, CIN II, CIN III and invasive carcinoma samples for the non specialist user 3.To customise a commercially available micro Raman system to make it suitable for cervical cancer screening 4.To conduct beta testing at the National Maternity Hospital and the Coombe Women and Infants University Hospital to test and validate the technology
  • Funding Agency
    • Enterprise Ireland
  • Date From
    • June 2009
  • Date To
    • may 2012
  • Title
    • CERVIVA: Working towards a world class cervical screening system for Irish Women.
  • Summary
    • Project Goals: To develop new screening tools and diagnostics in cervical screening. Project Aims: 1.automation and its impact on cervical screening 2.health economic evaluation of automated cervical screening with the aim to provide a sound basis for decisions on developing a cost-effective cervical screening programme in the context of changing screening technologies 3.examine the attitudes of women to cervical screening and HPV testing 4.critically examine the impact of a positive smear and HPV test result in Irish women 5.examine streamlining cervical screening through the introduction of ancillary HPV testing: in specific management protocols 6.health economic evaluation of introducing HPV ancillary testing in the Irish population 7.the impact of HPV vaccines on cervical cancer and screening programmes 8.introduction of quality initiatives in a routine screening service through the development of a virtual slide EQA scheme 9.improvement of the existing opportunistic screening service in the Republic of Ireland 10.carry out blue-sky research in the area of cancer biochip development
  • Funding Agency
    • HRB
  • Date From
    • 1st Sept 2006
  • Date To
    • 31st August 2011
  • Title
    • Hsa-miR-141 and hsa-miR-223 are central to Ovarian Serous Carcinoma Pathogenesis through Regulation of JAG1 and SMARCD1 proteins.
  • Summary
    • Project Goals: To assess the the role of two miRNAs in ovarian serous carcinomas and evaluation of the effects of knocking down these targets using anti-mIRs.
  • Funding Agency
    • Cancer Research Ireland
  • Date From
    • 1st April 2009
  • Date To
    • 31st March, 2012
  • Title
    • Specific Targeting of Cancer Stemness: Potential Cancer Therapy?
  • Summary
    • This grant is examining the effect of knocking-down of 5 target miRNAs in embryonal carcinoma cell lines.
  • Funding Agency
    • Cancer Research Ireland
  • Date From
    • 1st Oct 2008
  • Date To
    • 30th Sept 2011
  • Title
    • Automatic Detection of Disease Related Molecular Cell Activity
  • Summary
    • EU 6th Framework Programme STREP (Specific Targeted Research or Innovation Projects). 2005-2008. (Co-Applicant) (FP6 2004-ISTNMP2)
  • Funding Agency
    • EU 6th Framework
  • Date From
    • 2005
  • Date To
    • 2008
  • Title
    • : EU 7th FP grant (FP7-HEALTH-2007-A) Automatic Cancer Screening Based on real-time PCR
  • Summary
    • Project Goals: To develop and to validate a point of care (POC) diagnostic system for cancer screening, combining the methods of real time PCR and DNA microarrays. Project Aims: To develop a combined thermal cycler and optical detection system to perform PCR cycling and microarray detection simultaneously To develop a microfluidic cartridge containing light guiding components to enable attenuated total reflection (ATR) and the immobilized microarray within a reaction chamber, which is amenable for PCR cycling and optical readout by TIRF .To develop a novel type of assay protocol (the mediator probe assay) to enable screening of any nucleic acid by a single universal/ generic microarray To test a new combinational approach for cervical cancer screening including both HPV and human gene biomarker testing . To perform a clinical feasibility and validation study to benchmark the performance of the new test to existing diagnostic platforms with respect to HPV diagnostics
  • Funding Agency
    • European Union FP7 Programme
  • Date From
    • 1st August 2008
  • Date To
    • 31st July, 2011
  • Title
    • Regulation and Function of Toll-like Receptors in Ovarian Cancer: A Synergistic Model
  • Summary
    • Characterisation of TLR4/MyD88 in ovarian cancer
  • Funding Agency
    • Cancer Research Ireland
  • Date From
    • 1st Oct 2008
  • Date To
    • 31st March, 2011
  • Title
    • Antibody profiling in ovarian cancer
  • Summary
    • Identification of novel auto-antibodies in the serum of ovarian cancer patients using a novel human protein expression array library. Grant 3
  • Funding Agency
    • Emer Casey Foundation
  • Date From
    • 01/04/2009
  • Date To
    • 31/03/2012
  • Title
    • Development of novel therapeutics in ovarian cancer
  • Summary
    • Validation of functional role of novel genes and miRNAs in recurrent ovarian cancer specimens and development of novel therapeutics. This project is critically examining several miRNA molecules in recurrent ovarian cancer
  • Funding Agency
    • The Emer Casey Foundation
  • Date From
    • 01/10/2008
  • Date To
    • 30/09/2011

Keywords

Apoptosis; Apoptosis, molecular control; Autism; Bioinformatics; Biology; Cancer genetics and cell biology including metastasis; Cell cycle control; Cervical cancer; Chromosome structure and dynamics; Commercialisation of scientific research; Community health and general practice; Cytology and Cancerology; DNA polymorphisms, evaluate chimerism after bone marrow transplant; DNA transcription and translation; DNA typing; Drug development and evaluation; Environmental Carcinogenesis; Epidemiology; Gene therapy; Gene transcription in human cancer; Genetic/Molecular epidemiology; Genomic structure and function, molecular approaches to gene function; Gynaecology oncology; Health attitudes and behaviour; Health management; Host, Pathogen interactions; Human genetics; Imaging Techniques; Infertility; Intra and intercellular signalling; Medical Sciences, Research; Medical technology; Membrane and protein trafficking; Molecular population genetics; Nuclei acid chemistry, structure and folding; Oncogenes, apoptosis and tumour development; Pathology; Population based intervention trials; Regulatory methods of gene expression; RNA processing, stability and degradation; Stem Cell biology and hematopoiesis; Therapeutic and Clinical oncology; Tumour immunology and immunotherapy; Virology and viral pathogenesis