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Professor Noel Mc Carthy
Professor of Population Health Medicine, Public Health & Primary Care


Noel McCarthy is Professor of Population Health Medicine at Trinity College Dublin. His principal research focus is on infectious disease epidemiology with broader interests applying research methods to public health problems. His teaching goal is to facilitate students to learn by thinking and reflective experience, whether that be specific and technical such as how to think as an epidemiologist, or more general such as reflecting on how power structures in a society affect the distribution of health and wellbeing. He qualified in medicine from Trinity in 1989, completed general internal medicine training Dublin and Cork before moving into infectious disease and public health and working internationally. This included refugee healthcare work in Africa with Médecins Sans Frontières, microbiology (St James's), field epidemiology training in Sweden, and work at the Food Safety Authority of Ireland before training in public health in the UK specialising in communicable disease control and infectious disease epidemiology with clinical posts as a consultant in communicable disease control and National Infection Service epidemiologist. Research training included an MSc (Medical Statistics) at the University of London and Wellcome Trust Fellowship supported DPhil at the University of Oxford integrating population genetic analyses in the epidemiology of bacterial disease (Campylobacter) supervised by Martin Maiden. Academic posts have been as a research fellow at the Department of Zoology, University of Oxford and Professor of Communicable Disease Control Epidemiology at Warwick Medical School.

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Auguste, PE; Mistry, H; McCarthy, ND; Sutcliffe, P; Clarke, AE., Cost-effectiveness of testing for latent tuberculosis infection in people with HIV , AIDS, 36, (1), 2022, p1 - 9 Journal Article, 2022

Grove A, Osokogu O, Al-Khudairy L, Mehrabian A, Zanganeh M, Brown A, Court R, Taylor-Phillips S, Uthman OA, McCarthy N, Kumar S, Clarke A., Association between vitamin D supplementation or serum vitamin D level and susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection or COVID-19 including clinical course, morbidity and mortality outcomes? A systematic review., BMJ Open, 11, (5), 2021, pe043737 Journal Article, 2021 DOI

Mytton OT, McCarthy N, Watson J, Whiting P., Interpreting a lateral flow SARS-CoV-2 antigen test., BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 373, 2021, pn1411 Journal Article, 2021 DOI

Cavallaro M, Moiz H, Keeling MJ, McCarthy ND., Contrasting factors associated with COVID-19-related ICU admission and death outcomes in hospitalised patients by means of Shapley values., PLoS computational biology, 17, (6), 2021, pe1009121 Journal Article, 2021 DOI

Didelot X, Kendall M, Xu Y, White PJ, McCarthy N., Genomic Epidemiology Analysis of Infectious Disease Outbreaks Using TransPhylo., Curr Protoc, 1, (2), 2021, pe60 Journal Article, 2021 DOI

Brueggemann AB, Jansen van Rensburg MJ, Shaw D, McCarthy ND, Jolley KA, Maiden MCJ, van der Linden MPG, Amin-Chowdhury Z, Bennett DE, Borrow R, Brandileone MC, Broughton K, Campbell R, Cao B, Casanova C, Choi EH, Chu YW, Clark SA, Claus H, Coelho J, Corcoran M, Cottrell S, Cunney RJ, Dalby T, Davies H, de Gouveia L, Deghmane AE, Demczuk W, Desmet S, Drew RJ, du Plessis M, Erlendsdottir H, Fry NK, Fuursted K, Gray SJ, Henriques-Normark B, Hale T, Hilty M, Hoffmann S, Humphreys H, Ip M, Jacobsson S, Johnston J, Kozakova J, Kristinsson KG, Krizova P, Kuch A, Ladhani SN, Lâm TT, Lebedova V, Lindholm L, Litt DJ, Martin I, Martiny D, Mattheus W, McElligott M, Meehan M, Meiring S, Mölling P, Morfeldt E, Morgan J, Mulhall RM, Muñoz-Almagro C, Murdoch DR, Murphy J, Musilek M, Mzabi A, Perez-Argüello A, Perrin M, Perry M, Redin A, Roberts R, Roberts M, Rokney A, Ron M, Scott KJ, Sheppard CL, Siira L, Skoczy"ska A, Sloan M, Slotved HC, Smith AJ, Song JY, Taha MK, Toropainen M, Tsang D, Vainio A, van Sorge NM, Varon E, Vlach J, Vogel U, Vohrnova S, von Gottberg A, Zanella RC, Zhou F., Changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis during the COVID-19 pandemic in 26 countries and territories in the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance Initiative: a prospective analysis of surveillance data., Lancet Digit Health, 3, (6), 2021, pe360-e370 Journal Article, 2021 DOI

, Two centuries of immunisation in the UK (part 1), Arch Dis Child, 2020 Journal Article, 2020

, Two centuries of immunisation in the UK (part II), Arch Dis Child, 2020 Journal Article, 2020

, Incubation period of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, Analysis of individual patient data to describe the incubation period distribution of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli, Epidemiol Infect, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, Comparison of Statistical Algorithms for Daily Syndromic Surveillance Aberration Detection, Bioinformatics, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, Pneumococcal disease : a systematic review of health utilities, resource use, costs, and economic evaluations of interventions , Value in Health, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, Are food exposures obtained through commercial market panels representative of the general population? Implications for outbreak investigations, Epidemiology and Infection, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, The impact of childhood pneumococcal vaccination on hospital admissions in England : a whole population observational study., BMC Infect Dis, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, Within-host mathematical modelling of the incubation period of Salmonella Typhi, Royal Society open science, 2019 Journal Article, 2019

, Use of gender distribution in routine surveillance data to detect potential transmission of gastrointestinal infections among men who have sex with men in England , Epidemiology & Infection, 2018 Journal Article, 2018

, Novel application of the matched case-control design to compare food supply chains during an Escherichia coli O157 outbreak, United Kingdom, 2016, Euro Surveill, 2018 Journal Article, 2018

, Bacterial load and molecular markers associated with early-onset Group B Streptococcus. The Pediatric infectious disease journal, The Pediatric infectious disease journal, 2018 Journal Article, 2018

, Online market research panel members as controls in case"control studies to investigate gastrointestinal disease outbreaks: Early experiences and lessons learnt from the UK, Epidemiology and Infection, 2018 Journal Article, 2018

, Highly Pathogenic Clone of Shiga Toxin"Producing Escherichia coli O157:H7, England and Wales, Emerging Infectious Diseases, 2018 Journal Article, 2018

, Incubation period of typhoidal salmonellosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis of outbreaks and experimental studies occurring over the last century, BMC Infectious Diseases, 2018 Journal Article, 2018

, Multiplex tests to identify gastrointestinal bacteria, viruses and parasites in people with suspected infectious gastroenteritis: a systematic review and economic analysis, Health Technology Assessment, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Agreement between gastrointestinal panel testing and standard microbiology methods for detecting pathogens in suspected infectious gastroenteritis : test evaluation and meta-analysis in the absence of a reference standard , Plos one, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Comparative efficacy of drugs for treating giardiasis: a systematic update of the literature and network meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials, J Antimicrob Chemother, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Factors Associated with Sequelae of Campylobacter and Non-typhoidal Salmonella Infections: A Systematic Review, EBioMedicine, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Indirect impact of childhood pneumococcal conjugate vaccination on invasive pneumococcal disease : a global systematic review and meta-analysis, Lancent Global Health, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, A seroprevalence study to determine the frequency of hantavirus infection in people exposed to wild and pet fancy rats in England.Epidemiol Infect, Epidemiol Infect, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Adverse events in women and children who have received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis treatment: a systematic review. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Core Genome Multilocus Sequence Typing Scheme for Stable, Comparative Analyses of Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Human Disease Isolates, J Clin Microbiol, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Lack of Secondary Transmission of Ebola Virus from Healthcare Worker to 238 Contacts, United Kingdom, December 2014, Emerg Infect Dis, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Comparing interferon-gamma release assays with tuberculin skin test for identifying latent tuberculosis infection that progresses to active tuberculosis: systematic review and meta-analysis, BMC Infect Dis, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Local genes for local bacteria: Evidence of allopatry in the genomes of transatlantic Campylobacter populations, Mol Ecol, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, A systematic review and meta-analysis on the incubation period of Campylobacteriosis, Epidemiology and Infection, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Recurrent seasonal outbreak of an emerging serotype of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC O55:H7 Stx2a) in the south west of England, July 2014 to September 2015. Euro Surveill, Euro Surveill, 2017 Journal Article, 2017

, Pertussis vaccination for healthcare workers: staff attitudes and perceptions associated with high coverage vaccination programmes in England, Public Health, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Taste and Safety: Is the Exceptional Cuisine Offered by High End Restaurants Paralleled by High Standards of Food Safety?, PLoS Curr, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Community-onset sepsis and its public health burden: a systematic review, Syst Rev, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, An evaluation of health protection practices for the investigation and management of Cryptosporidium in England and Wales, J Public Health (Oxf), 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Genetic Diversity of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli Isolates from Conventional Broiler Flocks and the Impacts of Sampling Strategy and Laboratory Method, Appl Environ Microbiol, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Genome-wide association of functional traits linked with Campylobacter jejuni survival from farm to fork, Environ Microbiol, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Integration of Genomic and Other Epidemiologic Data to Investigate and Control a Cross-Institutional Outbreak of Streptococcus pyogenes, Emerg Infect Dis, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Vaccination of chemotherapy patients--effect of guideline implementation, Support Care Cancer, 2016 Journal Article, 2016

, Variation in incidence and notification of Campylobacter and Salmonella by general practice in the Thames Valley area, Public Health, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, A quantitative review of healthcare professionals' questions to a local immunization advice service: 4299 enquiries from 3 years, J Public Health (Oxf), 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, Community-onset sepsis and its public health burden: protocol of a systematic review, Syst Rev, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study, Vaccine, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, The long-term dynamics of Campylobacter colonizing a free-range broiler breeder flock: an observational study, Environ Microbiol, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, How to conduct systematic reviews more expeditiously?, Syst Rev, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, Partial Failure of Milk Pasteurization as a Risk for the Transmission of Campylobacter From Cattle to Humans, Clin Infect Dis, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, Wild bird-associated Campylobacter jejuni isolates are a consistent source of human disease, in Oxfordshire, United Kingdom, Environ Microbiol Rep, 2015 Journal Article, 2015

, Assessment of Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission in Oxfordshire, UK, 2007-12, with whole pathogen genome sequences: an observational study, Lancet Respir Med, 2014 Journal Article, 2014

, Immunisation errors reported to a vaccine advice service: intelligence to improve practice, Qual Prim Care, 2014 Journal Article, 2014

, Approaches to the detection of very small, common, and easily missed outbreaks that together contribute substantially to human Cryptosporidium infection, Epidemiol Infect, 2014 Journal Article, 2014

, Descriptive epidemiology of school outbreaks of seasonal influenza B during 2012/2013 in the Thames Valley, United Kingdom, Public Health, 2014 Journal Article, 2014

, Widespread acquisition of antimicrobial resistance among Campylobacter isolates from UK retail poultry and evidence for clonal expansion of resistant lineages, BMC Microbiol, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Real-time genomic epidemiology of human Campylobacter isolates using whole genome multilocus sequence typing, J Clin Microbiol, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Progressive genome-wide introgression in agricultural Campylobacter coli, Mol Ecol, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, An epidemiological view of microbial genomic data, Lancet Infect Dis, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Marked host specificity and lack of phylogeographic population structure of Campylobacter jejuni in wild birds, Mol Ecol, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Duck Liver-associated Outbreak of Campylobacteriosis among Humans, United Kingdom, 2011, Emerg Infect Dis, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Factors affecting delay in initiation of treatment of tuberculosis in the Thames Valley, UK, Public Health, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

Maiden, MCJ. Jansen Van Rensbury, ML, Bray, JE. Earle, SG. Ford SA, Jolley KA, McCarthy, ND., MLST revisited: the gene-by-gene approach to bacterial genomics. , Nat Rev Micro, 11, (10), 2013, p728 - 736 Journal Article, 2013

, Pet rats as a source of hantavirus in England and Wales, 2013, Euro Surveill, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, UK hantavirus, renal failure, and pet rats, Lancet, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Self-reported adverse events in adolescents aged 13-18 years after mass vaccination with pertussis-containing vaccine, following a school outbreak, Public Health, 2013 Journal Article, 2013

, Molecular epidemiology of human Campylobacter jejuni shows association between seasonal and international patterns of disease, Epidemiol Infect, 2012 Journal Article, 2012

, A longitudinal 6-year study of the molecular epidemiology of clinical campylobacter isolates in Oxfordshire, United kingdom, J Clin Microbiol, 2012 Journal Article, 2012

, The Burden and Impact of Measles among the Gypsy-Traveller communities, Thames Valley, 2006-09, J Public Health (Oxf), 2012 Journal Article, 2012

, The "case-chaos study" as an adjunct or alternative to conventional case-control study methodology, Am J Epidemiol, 2012 Journal Article, 2012

, Transmission and control in an institutional pandemic influenza A(H1N1) 2009 outbreak, Epidemiol Infect, 2012 Journal Article, 2012

, A large foodborne outbreak of norovirus in diners at a restaurant in England between January and February 2009, Epidemiol Infect, 2012 Journal Article, 2012

, Niche segregation and genetic structure of Campylobacter jejuni populations from wild and agricultural host species, Mol Ecol, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Changes in serogroup and genotype prevalence among carried meningococci in the United Kingdom during vaccine implementation, J Infect Dis, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, An outbreak of norovirus infection linked to oyster consumption at a UK restaurant, February 2010, J Public Health (Oxf), 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, The prevalence of Campylobacter amongst a free-range broiler breeder flock was primarily affected by flock age, PLoS One, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Group A streptococcal infections during the seasonal influenza outbreak 2010/11 in South East England, Euro Surveill, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Introgression in the genus Campylobacter: generation and spread of mosaic alleles, Microbiology, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Campylobacter genotypes from poultry transportation crates indicate a source of contamination and transmission, J Appl Microbiol, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis case in the Thames Valley, UK and public health interventions, J Infect Public Health, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Campylobacter populations in wild and domesticated Mallard ducks (Anas platyrhynchos), Environ Microbiol Rep, 2011 Journal Article, 2011

, Outbreak of Bordetella pertussis among oncology nurse specialists, Occup Med (Lond), 2010 Journal Article, 2010

, Comparison of Campylobacter populations isolated from a free-range broiler flock before and after slaughter, Int J Food Microbiol, 2010 Journal Article, 2010

, Evolution of an agriculture-associated disease causing Campylobacter coli clade: evidence from national surveillance data in Scotland, PLoS One, 2010 Journal Article, 2010

, Challenges in investigating transient rash illness in nursery children, J Public Health (Oxf), 2010 Journal Article, 2010

, Host association of Campylobacter genotypes transcends geographic variation, Appl Environ Microbiol, 2010 Journal Article, 2010

, MLST clustering of Campylobacter jejuni isolates from patients with gastroenteritis, reactive arthritis and Guillain-Barre syndrome, J Appl Microbiol, 2010 Journal Article, 2010

, A case of verocytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 from a private barbecue in South East England, Euro Surveill, 2009 Journal Article, 2009

, Campylobacter genotypes from food animals, environmental sources and clinical disease in Scotland 2005/6, Int J Food Microbiol, 2009 Journal Article, 2009

, Dynamics of Campylobacter colonization of a natural host, Sturnus vulgaris (European starling), Environ Microbiol, 2009 Journal Article, 2009

, Campylobacter genotyping to determine the source of human infection, Clin Infect Dis, 2009 Journal Article, 2009

, Invasive meningococcal disease: completeness and timeliness of reporting of confirmed cases in Thames Valley, 2006-2007, Public Health, 2009 Journal Article, 2009

, Association of a bacteriophage with meningococcal disease in young adults, PLoS One, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

Sheppard, SK. McCarthy, ND. Falush D, Maiden MCJ., Convergence of Campylobacter species: implications for bacterial evolution, Science, 320, (5873), 2008, p237 - 239 Journal Article, 2008

, Opa protein repertoires of disease-causing and carried meningococci, J Clin Microbiol, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

, Resource allocation during an influenza pandemic, Emerg Infect Dis, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

, School-aged children: a reservoir for continued circulation of Haemophilus influenzae type b in the United Kingdom, J Infect Dis, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

, Extended sequence typing of Campylobacter spp., United Kingdom, Emerg Infect Dis, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

, Campylobacter infection of broiler chickens in a free-range environment, Environ Microbiol, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

, Early virological suppression with three-class antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected African infants, AIDS, 2008 Journal Article, 2008

, Outbreak of waterborne cryptosporidiosis associated with low oocyst concentrations, Epidemiol Infect, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, Demographic risk factors for classical and atypical scrapie in Great Britain, J Gen Virol, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, Control of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 is associated with HLA-B*13 and targeting of multiple gag-specific CD8+ T-cell epitopes, J Virol, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, CD8+ T-cell responses to different HIV proteins have discordant associations with viral load, Nat Med, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, High frequency of rapid immunological progression in African infants infected in the era of perinatal HIV prophylaxis, AIDS, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, Contact tracing following exposure to measles at a wedding party in the United Kingdom, October 2007, Euro Surveill, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, Host-associated genetic import in Campylobacter jejuni, Emerg Infect Dis, 2007 Journal Article, 2007

, Passive sexual transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 variants and adaptation in new hosts, J Virol, 2006 Journal Article, 2006

, Effectiveness analyses may underestimate protection of infants after group C meningococcal immunization, J Infect Dis, 2006 Journal Article, 2006

, Evaluation of Cystatin C as a marker of renal injury following on-pump and off-pump coronary surgery, Eur J Cardiothorac Surg, 2005 Journal Article, 2005

, Genetic analysis of meningococci carried by children and young adults, J Infect Dis, 2005 Journal Article, 2005

, Genetic diversity and carriage dynamics of Neisseria lactamica in infants, Infect Immun, 2005 Journal Article, 2005

, Multilocus sequence typing directly on DNA from clinical samples and a cultured isolate to investigate linked fatal pneumococcal disease in residents of a shelter for homeless men, J Clin Microbiol, 2005 Journal Article, 2005

, Distribution of serogroups and genotypes among disease-associated and carried isolates of Neisseria meningitidis from the Czech Republic, Greece, and Norway, J Clin Microbiol, 2004 Journal Article, 2004

, Immunogenicity and safety of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine as a pre-school booster in UK children, Vaccine, 2004 Journal Article, 2004

, Olfactory detection of human bladder cancer by dogs: proof of principle study, BMJ, 2004 Journal Article, 2004

, Cross-sectional survey of users of Internet depression communities, BMC Psychiatry, 2003 Journal Article, 2003

, Association of the metabolic syndrome with both vigorous and moderate physical activity, Int J Epidemiol, 2003 Journal Article, 2003

, An outbreak of Rift Valley fever in Northeastern Kenya, 1997-98, Emerg Infect Dis, 2002 Journal Article, 2002

, Incidence of Guillain-Barre syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, Am J Epidemiol, 2001 Journal Article, 2001

, Adult obesity depends on genes and environment, BMJ, 2001 Journal Article, 2001

, Health effects of prisons. Legitimacy of punishment systems should be addressed, BMJ, 2000 Journal Article, 2000

, An international outbreak of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli O157 infection amongst tourists; a challenge for the European infectious disease surveillance network, Epidemiol Infect, 1999 Journal Article, 1999

, Continuous subcutaneous infusion of morphine vs. hydromorphone: a controlled trial, J Pain Symptom Manage, 1999 Journal Article, 1999

, Primary peritonitis due to nonenteric salmonellae, Clin Infect Dis, 1999 Journal Article, 1999

, The risk of Guillain-Barre syndrome following infection with Campylobacter jejuni, Epidemiol Infect, 1999 Journal Article, 1999

, Case-case comparisons to study causation of common infectious diseases, Int J Epidemiol, 1999 Journal Article, 1999

, Epidemiological explanation of an outbreak of gastro-enteritis in Sweden in the absence of detailed microbiological information, Eur J Epidemiol, 1998 Journal Article, 1998

, A world free from polio?, Lancet, 1997 Journal Article, 1997

, Antiepithelial cell antibodies do not impair paediatric renal allograft survival but appear to be associated with acute viral infections, Transpl Immunol, 1996 Journal Article, 1996

, Resolution of nephrotic syndrome and acute renal failure in a solitary kidney by captopril, Clin Nephrol, 1994 Journal Article, 1994

, Sixth nerve palsy: an unusual manifestation of preeclampsia, Obstet Gynecol, 1994 Journal Article, 1994

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

Campylobacter in, editor(s)Deng X, den Bakker HC, Hendriksen RS , Applied Genomics of Foodborne Pathogens. , Switzerland, Springer International Publishing,, 2017, pp127 - 143, [McCarthy, ND.] Book Chapter, 2017

Clinical Epidemiology in, editor(s)Abubakar I, Stagg HR, Cohen T, Rodrigues LC , Infectious Disease Epidemiology. , Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2016, pp119 - 132, [McCarthy ND, Smith A.] Book Chapter, 2016

Molecular Epidemiology of Campylobacter Species in, editor(s)Nachamkin I, Szymanski CM, Blaser MJ , Campylobacter, Washington, ASM Press, 2008, pp191 - 211, [ON SLW, McCarthy ND, Miller WG, Gilpin BJ] Book Chapter, 2008

Research Expertise


Research interests have focused on the integration of pathogen genetic data in infectious disease epidemiology, developing and applying novel epidemiological approaches in communicable disease control, using routinely collected data for research, and a broad range of work linking research into public health practice. Research contributions in these areas are outlined below. The development of an approach to source attribution of pathogens to zoonotic reservoirs applying population genetic algorithms using the example of Campylobacter infection [PMC2063414] with subsequent validation [PMC3988352] and application to human infection [PMC2916502]. This has become a standard approach as recently reviewed [PMC6820127] including in national monitoring projects in the UK. Integrating bacterial genome sequence data with other epidemiological data including developing and validating core genome multi-locus sequence typing [PMC5483910] for outbreak detection in population level surveillance [PMC3719633], ad hoc application studies such as the emergence of an STEC clone [PMC6256402](7) investigating care setting streptococcal [PMC4880081] and milk-borne Campylobacter [PMC4551004] outbreaks, population studies of the distribution of TB transmission [PMC4571080], and the ecology of Campylobacter as it relates to human infection [PMC3487483]. Reviewing the use of approaches using the multi-locus sequence typing paradigm in epidemiology [PMC3980634]. Developing novel epidemiological approaches in applied infectious disease epidemiology such as: describing case-case comparisons based on bacterial subtypes [PMID: 10480708] which is now widely used (a "case-case" and "infection" search in Google Scholar returns over 9,000 items); applying classical epidemiological studies to the food supply chain in outbreaks [PMC6053626]; validating temporospatial approaches to detecting smaller outbreaks [PMID: 24690264]; the use of internet panels for controls in outbreak investigation [PMC5848756]; and the use of modelling approaches to evaluate disease control interventions [PMID: 21859502]. Diverse collaborative work includes contributions to vaccine trials [PMID: 26165918], evaluation of the herd immunity effects of childhood vaccination [PMID: 27955789] with direct policy implications for adult vaccination policy and basic science work on Campylobacter [PMC18403712].


  • Title
    • Quantifying the transmission routes of gastroenteritis in Pakistan and developing targeted interventions
  • Funding Agency
    • Medical Research Council
  • Date From
    • December 2020
  • Date To
    • Novemeber 2023
  • Title
    • NIHR Health Potection Unit in Gastrointestinal Infection
  • Funding Agency
    • National Institute for Health Research
  • Date From
    • April 2020
  • Date To
    • March 2025
  • Title
    • NIHR Health Protection Research Unit in Genomics and Enabling Data
  • Funding Agency
    • National Institute for Health Research
  • Date From
    • April 2020
  • Date To
    • March 2025



Chair. National Serosurveillance Programme Steering Group (2021-). October 2021-


Fellow of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine, Royal College of Physicians of Ireland July 2021

Member of the Faculty of Public Health Medicine (England) June 2000

Member of the Royal College of Physicians of Ireland June 1992