Leukocytosis :Significance of Monocytosis vs Lymphocytosis
Monocytosis (monocyte count greater than or equal to 10x109) may indicate :
- an underlying malignancy, immunologic disease or chronic inflammatory process.
- certain primary hematologic disorders such as drug-induced or other forms of neutropenia, hemolytic anaemias, or myelodysplastic syndromes.
- the early phase of bone marrow recovery from myelosuppression or following intensive chemotherapy.
- In adult patients lymphocytosis (absolute lymphocyte count greater than or equal to or > 7x109) is usually an indication of hematologic malignancy, in particular chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
- CLL is described in the Lymphadenopathy program.
- Lymphocytosis in adults also may occur in association with endocrine disorders, especially thyrotoxicosis or adrenal insufficiency.
- In childhood and adolescence the chief causes are pertussis and acute infectious.
- Atypical or reactive lymphocytes are characteristic of viral infections such as infectious mononeucleosis.
Lymphocytosis in Childhood
- In childhood and adolescence, the chief causes of lymphocytosis are pertussis and acute infectious lymphocytosis.
- Pertussis (whooping cough) may be associated with lymphocyte counts of 7x109 or more.
- Acute infectious lymphocytosis is a mild, self limited disease usually asymptomatic, but occasionally characterised by fever, rash and upper respiratory symptoms. Lymphocytosis may reach impressive levels and persist for several weeks.
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