south of Mosul, prices for local produce began to abate; villages were built of stone, but in other respects were similar to Arab villages and equally squalid. The butter churn used by these primitive people here is a goat skin suspended from a trestle which is shaken backwards & forwards to make the butter. Our first day out Enver Pascha and his staff passed us, returning to Constantinople. How we envied them flying over the desert in their fast motors!
Our marches were very similar as regards length and time, to those up to Mosul: each halt was usually at a small Turkish police post, a conical hill close to a stream or waterhole. On May 30th/31st our march took us 18 ½ hours to accomplish, 15 hours of which was actual marching, during which we covered some 42 miles, having come from the Eski Mosul into the Rumelat neighbourhoods in the El Djesire district of Southern Kurdestan; this district, according to some older soldiers amongst us was very similar to the Veldt of South Africa. There were many varieties of wild flowers, including holly-hocks, yellow marguerittes, and corn flowers, which lent colour to the course desert grass. With the exception of a few sandgrouse and an occasional black partridge I saw no game. At the end of this