‘The most lamentable burning of the cittie of Corke’: A view on Irish history from a Dutch Collection

by Joe Nankivell

On the morning of 31st May 1622, exactly four hundred years ago, a terrible fire struck Cork city. It was sparked by an early summer thunderstorm. Many of the tightly packed dwellings within the city walls were built of timber or clay and had thatched roofs, and when lightning struck they quickly went up in flames. Between 11 o’clock and noon the fire tore through all parts of the city, leaving a trail of devastation.

One of the reasons we know about this fire is because it was the subject of a news pamphlet, A relation of the most lamentable burning of the cittie of Corke, in the west of Ireland, in the province of Monster, by thunder and lightning, which was printed in London on 20th June, barely three weeks later. It is a scarce work, with only three copies recorded in the English Short Title Catalogue. But a Dutch translation was printed in The Hague by Aert Meuris in 1622, and this translation is held in the Library of Trinity College Dublin among the 5,200 pamphlets in the Fagel Collection.

Verhael van de seer beklaechlicke afbrandinge der stadt Corke (TCD Fag.H.3.23 no.5)

The work might not have been written – and probably would not have been translated for wider readership – were it not for the bizarre events of the previous October, when two warring factions of starlings are said to have fought above the skies of Cork. The strange spectacle had been recorded in another pamphlet, The wonderfull battell of starelings fought at the citie of Corke in Ireland, the 12. and 14. of October last past 1621. This title is also held in Trinity (although it is not part of the Fagel Collection). In it, we read that the starlings mustered in two bands, coming from the east and the west of the city. After some preliminary diplomatic formalities, when groups of twenty or thirty birds passed between the groups ‘as it should seem employed in embassages’, there were a series of deadly clashes: ‘there fell downe into the citie, and into the Rivers, multitudes of Starelings or Stares, some with wings broken, some with legs and necks broken … in so strange a manner, that it were incredible except it were confirmed by letters of credit.’

The wonderfull battell of starelings (TCD Press A.3.36 no.3)

The writer of this account was in no doubt that the battle should be viewed as a portent: ‘it doth prognosticate either Gods mercy to draw us to repentance, or his justice to punish our sinnes and wickednesse’. But portents seldom reveal their meanings so swiftly. When the fire broke out seven months later, the chroniclers and balladeers who told the story picked up on the coincidence with a certain relish. The Relation of the most lamentable burning of the cittie of Corke opens by recalling the starling pamphlet, making the parallels as specific as possible by pointing out that they began their ‘fiery and furious flight’ at the spot where the fire first began. Like Sodom and Gomorrah, Cork was consumed with fire from heaven (although the writer tempers the rhetoric somewhat by noting that the Cork citizens’ sins were not so grave, as they were mostly known for usury, ‘the cheerful daughter of covetousness’).

The rest of the Relation is given over to a lurid account of the fire itself. Lightning struck the east of the city ‘at the very place where the Stares beganne their Battell’, and the buildings immediately went up in flames. The fire quickly took hold in the thatched roofs, trapping the inhabitants. Many took refuge in the churches, which were built of stone and thus less vulnerable to the flames. Those who were able to flee sought shelter in nearby fields or on an island (it is not clear where this might have been: a near-contemporary map from 1602 shows two possible locations). There, they listened helplessly to the piteous cries of the people left trapped in the burning city.

Detail from a 1602 map of Cork in the Hardiman Atlas, showing the tightly packed houses within the city walls, and some of the surrounding fields and islands. ‘A description of the Cittie of Cork, with the places next adjacent thereto’ (TCD MS 1209/45 )

The account finishes there, in the middle of the mayhem and despair, with the fire still raging. There is scant description of the casualties or the extent of the damage; instead, the writer returns to the starting point, that this must be viewed as some form of divine judgement. The pamphlet ends with the admonition that ‘all the Citties and Townes of England and Ireland, should make speedie use of so dreadfull an example’, invoking Luke 13:3: ‘But I say to you, unlesse you repent, you shall all likewise perish.’ It was not that the inhabitants of Cork were uniquely sinful, but that they failed to heed the clear warning sent by the birds, and thus they must serve as a warning to others.

Truth of the events described

What really happened in Cork in the early 1620s? It seems unlikely that a battle between warring factions of starlings took place exactly as described. More plausible is that there was an unusually large murmuration, leading to some kind of mid-air collision. Starling murmurations are one of the great spectacles of the natural world, and how they manage to avoid crashing into each other remains something of a mystery. But mishaps do occur. Last November, 150 starlings fell from the sky in El Ferrol in northern Spain, in a mass die-off that sounds very similar to the events observed in Cork 400 years previously. Later autopsies showed these birds to have died from physical injuries rather than electrocution or illness, and one theory is that they were panicked into colliding by a bird of prey. The 1621 account mentions a kite, a raven and a crow – perhaps something similar happened there.

On the other hand, there is no doubt that the city endured the terrible fire in May 1622. In its wake, the council’s minute-books from September that year record the loss of nearly 1,500 houses. They make no mention of the number of casualties, but the pamphlet states that ‘many hundreds of these people were consumed by the fire.’ The council outlawed thatch as a roofing material within the city walls, and any houses that were still thatched in June 1623 were subject to a £40 fine – equivalent to around €6,000 today – and could have the roofing summarily pulled down by ‘such persons as be authorized by the Mayor’ (Caulfield 1876, 102).

The Cork fire in the Fagel Collection

In the Fagel Collection, the Dutch translation of the Relation is bound with 44 other Dutch pamphlets and broadsheets printed between 1604 and 1650. Unlike many other volumes among this main series of Fagel pamphlets, this isn’t unified by a single political theme, geographical area, or time period. Instead, it brings together an eclectic mix of news sheets about other natural disasters and portents – a volcanic eruption, a comet – alongside accounts of sensational murders and other colourful topical documents. It also contains some fascinating contemporary works printed during the tulip mania period of 1637. In this context, it is a little difficult to discern what contemporary meaning we can ascribe to it. Perhaps it was read at face value, as a cautionary tale about living a good Christian life; or perhaps it tapped into the political instability of the Netherlands in 1622. It is also quite possible that it was viewed as a curiosity, much as we see it today.

Plate by printmaker Jan Luyken in Omstandigh vervolgh op Joh. Lodew. Gottfrieds Historische kronyck, Part I (Leyden, P. vander Aa, 1698, pp.1465–66) (TCD Fag.T.4.29)

Whatever meaning may have been attributed to it in the early seventeenth century, this episode still had some resonance in the Netherlands eighty years later. The story of the fire and the starling battle shows up again in the Fagel Collection in a general historical work printed in 1698. It is illustrated by a charming plate engraved by the Amsterdam printmaker Jan Luyken, which depicts the battle of the starlings taking place above a Cork square whose architecture has acquired a distinctly Dutch character.


Caulfield, Richard, ed. (1876) The council book of the Corporation of the city of Cork, from 1609 to 1643, and from 1690 to 1800. Guildford: Billing and Sons. (TCD Gall.DD.19.10)

As well as documenting the minutes of Cork Council, this work is prefaced with the ‘Annals of Cork’, where contemporary documents from the earliest years of Cork history are transcribed. Both pamphlets in this piece are recorded there (pp.xix–xxii), and I have used this as the source of the quotations from the English text.

The Fagel Collection Visiting Research Fellowship 2022-23

The Unlocking the Fagel Collection project includes an opportunity for a visiting research fellow to work on the Fagel Collection for a three month consecutive period between 1 September 2022 and 31 March 2023 in association with the Trinity Long Room Hub. Applicants must be distinguished scholars (not resident or employed on the island of Ireland) of the highest standing in their respective fields, appropriate to their career stage. They must have fluent spoken and written English. The Fagel Collection fellowship is open equally to established and mid-career researchers and postdoctoral researchers.

Please click HERE for the terms and conditions and how to apply.

The deadline for applications is 5pm GMT on Tuesday, 19 April 2022.

Announcing a Second Series of Fagel Videos

Series of videos about the Fagel Collection at the Library of Trinity College Dublin

A series of nine videos is being launched today which will showcase some of the finest items from the Fagel collection. Trinity College Dublin academics and Library staff share their expertise and provide behind-the-scenes insight into the conservation, cataloguing and digitization of one of the jewels of the Library’s collections.

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Gems of the Fagel Collection: Athanasius Kircher’s Mundus subterraneus 1678

A copy of Athansasius Kircher’s Mundus subterraneus is without doubt one of the most beautiful books in the Fagel Collection. The colouring is of an exceptional quality, initials and captions are heightened with gold throughout the book. Samuel Paterson, who compiled the Fagel auction catalogue for Christie’s in 1802, described it ‘a matchless copy, illuminated in the style of the ancient missals’. Time to take a closer look at this copy. Why did the otherwise so modest Fagels own such a lavishly decorated book?

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Hidden Treatments or “what lies beneath”

Behind the scenes of a book conservation treatment in the Fagel Collection

by Angelica Anchisi

Conservation is an essential part of the project Unlocking the Fagel Collection. The twenty thousand volumes from the collection have been safely stored at the library since arriving at Trinity College in 1802 and many are still in good condition. However, now that all books are being catalogued and taken from the shelves, some older damages do come to light. Action is needed to keep these books available for consultation and perhaps in some years’ time also for digitisation. Conservator Angelica Anchisi treats a handful of books from the Fagel Collection every week and shows us what happens at the conservation department.

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Gems of the Fagel Collection: La Géométrie Pratique 1702

Anita Cooper

The Fagel Collection contains a copy of Alain Manesson-Mallet’s 1702 four volume work La géométrie pratique printed in Paris (shelf mark Fag.N.7.33-36). He was a French cartographer and fortifications engineer who served the armies of both France and Portugal and later taught mathematics in the court of Louis XIV.

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The Fagel Videos

A series of Videos about the Fagel Family and their Collections

The Library of Trinity College and the KB National Library of the Netherlands are collaborating on a video project about the Fagel family and their collections. The private library of the Fagels has been in Dublin since 1802, but traces of their working life and family history can still be found across The Hague.

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An edition of Divina Commedia in the Fagel Collection

The Fagel collection was assembled as a working library by several generations of the Fagel family, of whom successive members held high offices in the Dutch Republic throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth century. The collection comprises books on a great variety of subjects, including literature in numerous languages. In that respect, it is hardly a surprise to come across an edition of Dante’s Divina Commedia in the library.

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