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Graham Cross
Associate Professor, Physics
Associate Professor, CRANN


Dr Graham Cross received his PhD degree in condensed matter physics from McGill University in Montréal, Canada in 2000, where he performed research in nanomechanics via scanned probe and field ion microscopy methods in ultra-high vacuum. From 1999 to 2001 he was FCAR postdoctoral fellow at IBM Research in Zürich, Switzerland. There he investigated polymer deformation and relaxation at the nanoscale and helped characterise the operational window of the atomic-force-microscopy-based data storage project Millipede. After a brief stay at the University of Zürich working on single atom field emission, he joined the nanomechanics group at the SFI Nanoscience Laboratory in Trinity College Dublin in 2002. At Trinity College Dublin, Dr. Cross has pursued a programme of understanding the rheological and tribological issues underlying massively parallel nanostructure fabrication by mechanical forming of soft condensed matter systems. His research interests include confined and large strain deformation behaviour of materials at the nanoscale, the production of nanodevices by mechanical forming, contact and transport at single asperities and structured interfaces, and point probe methods and instrumentation including nanoindentation and atomic force and field ion microscopy.

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Goel, S. and Cross, G. and Stukowski, A. and GamsjÀger, E. and Beake, B. and Agrawal, A., Designing nanoindentation simulation studies by appropriate indenter choices: Case study on single crystal tungsten, Computational Materials Science, 152, 2018, p196-210 Journal Article, 2018 DOI

Faisal, N.H. and Ahmed, R. and Goel, S. and Cross, G., Future of nanoindentation in archaeometry, Journal of Materials Research, 33, (17), 2018, p2515-2532 Journal Article, 2018 DOI

Brazil, O. and Usov, V. and Pethica, J.B. and Cross, G.L.W., Large area thermal nanoimprint below the glass transition temperature via small amplitude oscillatory shear forming, Microelectronic Engineering, 182, 2017, p35-41 Journal Article, 2017 DOI

Razeeb K.M, Dalton E, Cross G.L.W, Robinson A.J, Present and future thermal interface materials for electronic devices, International Materials Reviews , 2017, p1-21- Journal Article, 2017 DOI URL

Lin, K.L. and Cross, G.L.W. and Gleeson, P. and De Silva, J.P. and Levander, A. and Muñoz, J.A. and Pawashe, C. and Potie, A. and Theofanis, P. and Boland, J.J. and Kuhn, K.J., Adhesion limits and design criteria for nanorelays, IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, 63, (1), 2016, p465-470 Journal Article, 2016 DOI

Edelmann J, Eckert U, Groà S, GrÌndig B, Wedig H, Usov V, O'hara N, Scanlan D, Cross G, New microfluidic functionalities by nano- And micro-patterned moulds, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2016, 2016, 2016 Conference Paper, 2016 URL

Varagnolo S, Basu N, Ferraro D, Tóth T, Pierno M, Mistura G, Fois G, Tripathi B, Brazil O, Cross G.L.W, Effect of hair morphology and elastic stiffness on the wetting properties of hairy surfaces, Microelectronic Engineering, 161, 2016, p74 - 81 Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

McManamon C, De Silva J.P, Delaney P, Morris M.A, Cross G.L.W, Characteristics, interactions and coating adherence of heterogeneous polymer/drug coatings for biomedical devices, Materials Science and Engineering C, 59, 2016, p102 - 108 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Goel S, Stukowski A, Kovalchenko A, Cross G, Self-healing of cracks during ductile regime machining of silicon: Insights from molecular dynamics simulation, Proceedings of the 16th International Conference of the European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology, EUSPEN 2016, 2016, 2016 Conference Paper, 2016 URL

Goel S, Kovalchenko A, Stukowski A, Cross G, Influence of microstructure on the cutting behaviour of silicon, Acta Materialia, 105, 2016, p464 - 478 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Annett J, Cross G.L.W, Self-assembly of graphene ribbons by spontaneous self-tearing and peeling from a substrate, Nature, 535, (7611), 2016, p271 - 275 Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

Gleeson P, Lin K, Potie A, Pawashe C, P De Silva J, Cross G.L.W, Boland J.J, The effect of device fabrication on quasi-static elastic behaviour of silicon nanocantilever arrays, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 25, (12), 2015 Journal Article, 2015 URL DOI

English A, Azeem A, Spanoudes K, Jones E, Tripathi B, Basu N, McNamara K, Tofail S.A.M, Rooney N, Riley G, O'Riordan A, Cross G, Hutmacher D, Biggs M, Pandit A, Zeugolis D.I, Substrate topography: A valuable in vitro tool, but a clinical red herring for in vivo tenogenesis, Acta Biomaterialia, 27, 2015, p3 - 12 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

Basu N, Cross G.L.W, Controlling droplet-based deposition uniformity of long silver nanowires by micrometer scale substrate patterning, Nanotechnology, 26, (48), 2015 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

Azeem A, English A, Kumar P, Satyam A, Biggs M, Jones E, Tripathi B, Basu N, Henkel J, Vaquette C, Rooney N, Riley G, O'Riordan A, Cross G, Ivanovski S, Hutmacher D, Pandit A, Zeugolis D, The influence of anisotropic nano- to micro-topography on in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis, Nanomedicine, 10, (5), 2015, p693 - 711 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

English A, Azeem A, Spanoudes K, Jones E, Tripathi B, Basu N, McNamara K, Tofail S.A.M, Rooney N, Riley G, O'Riordan A, Cross G, Hutmacher D, Biggs M, Pandit A, Zeugolis D.I, Data on in vitro and in vivo cell orientation on substrates with different topographies, Data in Brief, 5, 2015, p379 - 382 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

McCloskey, D, Fox, D, O'Hara, N, Usov, V, Scanlan, D, McEvoy, N, Duesberg, GS, Cross, GLW, Zhang, HZ, Donegan, JF, Helium ion microscope generated nitrogen-vacancy centres in type Ib diamond, Applied Physics Letters, 104, (3), 2014, p031109- Journal Article, 2014 TARA - Full Text DOI

McCloskey, D., Fox, D., O'Hara, N., (...), Zhang, H.Z., Donegan, J.F., Helium ion microscope generated nitrogen-vacancy centres in type Ib diamond, Optics InfoBase Conference Papers , CLEO: Science and Innovations, San Jose, CA; United States, 8-13 June, OSA, 2014, pp106736- Conference Paper, 2014

McManamon, C. De Silva, J.P. Power, J. Ramirez-Garcia, S. Morris, M.A. Cross, G.L.W., Interfacial characteristics and determination of cohesive and adhesive strength of plasma-coated hydroxyapatite via nanoindentation and microscratch techniques, Langmuir, 30, (38), 2014, p11412 - 11420 Journal Article, 2014 DOI URL

Hassanzadeh, P, Sun, W, de Silva, JP, Jin, JH, Makhnejia, K, Cross, GLW, Rolandi, M, Mechanical properties of self-assembled chitin nanofiber networks, JOURNAL OF MATERIALS CHEMISTRY B, 2, (17), 2014, p2461-2466 Journal Article, 2014 DOI

D. McCloskey, D. Fox, N. O'Hara, V. Usov, D. Scanlan, N. McEvoy, G. S. Duesberg, G. L. W. Cross, H. Z. Zhang and J. F. Donegan, Helium ion microscope generated nitrogen-vacancy centres in type Ib diamond, Applied Physics Letters, 104, 2014, p031109- Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text

Bolger, C.T., Fois, G., Petkov, N., Sassiat, N., Burke, M., Quinn, A.J., Cross, G.L.W., Holmes, J.D., Mechanical constraint and release generates long, ordered horizontal pores in anodic alumina templates, Nanotechnology , 23, (17), 2012, part. no. 175602 Journal Article, 2012 DOI

Tripathi, S.K., Scanlan, D., O'Hara, N., Nadzeyka, A., Bauerdick, S., Peto, L., Cross, G.L.W., Resolution, masking capability and throughput for direct-write, ion implant mask patterning of diamond surfaces using ion beam lithography, Journal of Micromechanics and Microengineering, 22, (5), 2012, part. no. 055005 Journal Article, 2012 DOI

Liao, Z.-M., Wu, H.-C., Kumar, S., Duesberg, G.S., Zhou, Y.-B., Cross, G.L.W., Shvets, I.V., Yu, D.-P., Large magnetoresistance in few layer graphene stacks with current perpendicular to plane geometry, Advanced Materials, 24, (14), 2012, p1862-1866 Journal Article, 2012 DOI TARA - Full Text

He, L., Liao, Z.-M., Wu, H.-C., Tian, X.-X., Xu, D.-S., Cross, G.L.W., Duesberg, G.S., (...), Yu, D.-P., Memory and threshold resistance switching in Ni/NiO core-shell nanowires, Nano Letters, 11, (11), 2011, p4601-4606 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Bie, Y.-Q., Zhou, Y.-B., Liao, Z.-M., Yan, K., Liu, S., Zhao, Q., Kumar, S., (...), Yu, D.-P., Site-specific transfer-printing of individual graphene microscale patterns to arbitrary surfaces, Advanced Materials, 23, (34), 2011, p3938-3943 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Annett, J., Gao, Y., Cross, G.L.W., Herbert, E.G., Lucas, B.N., Mesoscale friction anisotropy revealed by slidingless tests, Journal of Materials Research, 26, (18), 2011, p2373-2378 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Zhi-Min Liao, Han-Chun Wu, Jing-Jing Wang, Graham L. W. Cross, Shishir Kumar, Igor V. Shvets and Georg S. Duesberg, Magnetoresistance of Fe3O4-graphene-Fe3O4 junctions, MAGNETISM AND SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, 98, 2011, p052511 Journal Article, 2011 DOI TARA - Full Text

Fois, G., Bolger, C.T., Holmes, J.D., Cross, G.L.W., Proximal oxidation as a director of self-organisation, Journal of Materials Chemistry, 21, (24), 2011, p8772-8780 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Warren McKenzie, John Pethica, Graham Cross, A direct-write, resistless hard mask for rapid nanoscale patterning of diamond, Diamond and Related Materials, 20, (5-6), 2011, p707-710 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text

Cross, G.L.W., Silicon nanoparticles: Isolation leads to change, Nature Nanotechnology, 6, (8), 2011, p467-468 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

O'Brien, S.J., Ozer, H.O., Cross, G.L.W., Pethica, J.B., Multiparameter imaging and understanding the role of the tip - Atomic resolution images of rutile TiO 2(110), Materials Research Society Symposium Proceedings, 2010 MRS Fall Meeting, Boston, MA; United States, 29 Nov - 3 Dec, 1318, 2011, pp127-135 Conference Paper, 2011 DOI

Giovanni Fois, Ciara Therese Bolger, Justin D Holmes and Graham Cross, Novel Pre-oxidation Patterning on Thin Aluminium Film Generating Ordered Nanopores through Anodization, Materials Research Society Proceedings, 1258, 2010 Journal Article, 2010 TARA - Full Text

McKenzie, W.R., Pethica, J.B., Cross, G.L.W., Focused ion beam as a direct-write mask tool for patterning diamond , Microscopy and Microanalysis, 15, (suppl. 2), 2009, p328-329 Journal Article, 2009 DOI

PARK, K; CROSS, GLW; ZHANG, ZMM; KING, Experimental Investigation on the Heat Transfer Between a Heated Microcantilever and a Substrate, Journal of Heat Transfer , 130, (10), 2008, p102401-102410 Journal Article, 2008 URL DOI

Harry D. Rowland, William P. King, John B. Pethica, Graham L. W. Cross, Molecular Confinement Accelerates Deformation of Entangled Polymers During Squeeze Flow, Science, 322, (5902), 2008, p720 - 724 Journal Article, 2008 URL DOI

Graham L. W. Cross, Barry S. OConnell, and John B. Pethica and Harry Rowland and William P. King, Variable temperature thin film indentation with a flat punch, Review of Scientific Instruments, 79, (1), 2008, p013904 Journal Article, 2008 DOI

Harry D. Rowland, William P. King, Graham L. W. Cross and John B. Pethica, Measuring Glassy and Viscoelastic Polymer Flow in Molecular-Scale Gaps Using a Flat Punch Mechanical Probe, ACS Nano, 2, (3), 2008, p419-428 Journal Article, 2008 URL DOI

Harry D. Rowland and William P. King, Amy C. Sun and P. Randy Schunk, Graham L. W. Cross, Predicting polymer flow during high-temperature atomic force microscope nanoindentation, Macromolecules, 40, (22), 2007, p8096-8103 Journal Article, 2007 DOI URL

Graham L. W. Cross, Barry S. O'Connell, H. Ozgür Özer, and John B. Pethica, Room temperature mechanical thinning and imprinting of solid films, Nano Letters, 7, (2 ), 2007, p357-362 Journal Article, 2007 URL DOI

Graham L. W. Cross, André Schirmeisen, Peter Grütter and Urs T. Dürig, Plasticity, healing and shakedown in sharp-asperity nanoindentation, Nature Materials, 5, (5), 2006, p370-376 Journal Article, 2006 URL DOI

Cross, Graham, The production of nanostructures by mechanical forming, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 39, 2006, pR363-R386 Journal Article, 2006 DOI URL

Graham L. W. Cross, Barry S. O'Connell, John B. Pethica and Warren C. Oliver., Some issues in the mechanical forming of nanoimprint structures, Journal of Photopolymer Science and Technology, 18, (5), 2005, p559-562 Journal Article, 2005 URL DOI

The mechanics of nanoimprint forming in, editor(s)CROSS, GLW; LANGFORD, RA; O'CONNELL, BS; et al. , Fundamentals of nanoindentation and nanotribology III; proceedings, Materials Research Society , 2005, pp15-26 , [CROSS, GLW; LANGFORD, RA; O'CONNELL, BS; et al.] Book Chapter, 2005

G.L.W. Cross, B.S. O'Connell, J.B. Pethica, H. Schulz, and H.-C. Scheer, Instrumented indentation testing for local characterisation of polymer properties after nanoimprint , Microelectronic Engineering, 30th International Conference on Micro- and Nano-Engineering , 78-79, Elsevier, 2005, 618-624 Conference Paper, 2005 DOI URL

Graham L. W. Cross, Barry S. O'Connell, and John B. Pethica, Influence of elastic strains on the mask ratio in glassy polymer nanoimprint, Applied Physics Letters, 86, (8), 2005, p081902 Journal Article, 2005 TARA - Full Text URL DOI

Cross, G.L.W. O'Connell, B. Pethica, J.B. Oliver, W. , Mechanical aspects of nanoimprint patterning, Proceedings of Third IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, Third IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, 2003., 12-14 Aug. 2003, 2, IEEE, 2003, pp494-497 Conference Paper, 2003 DOI TARA - Full Text URL

O'Connell, B. Cross, G.L.W. Pethica, J.B. Oliver, W. , Nanorheology of squeezed polymer films, Proceedings of Third IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology, 2003 Third IEEE Conference on Nanotechnology., 12-14 Aug. 2003, 2, IEEE, 2003, pp793-796 Conference Paper, 2003 URL DOI TARA - Full Text

Cross, G. W., O'Connell, B., Pethica, J. B. & Oliver, W. C., Mechanical aspects of nanoimprint patterning, Conference Proceedings IEEE Nano 2003 , IEEE Nano 2003 , San Francisco, CA, 2, IEEE, 2003, pp494 - 497 Conference Paper, 2003 TARA - Full Text DOI

King, W.P. Kenny, T.W. Goodson, K.E. Cross, G.L.W. Despont, M. Durig, U.T. Rothuizen, H. Binnig, G. Vettiger, P. , Design of atomic force microscope cantilevers for combined thermomechanical writing and thermal reading in array operation, Journal of Microelectromechanical Systems, 11, (6), 2002, p765-774 Journal Article, 2002 DOI TARA - Full Text URL

Vettiger, P. Cross, G. Despont, M. Drechsler, U. Durig, U. Gotsmann, B. Haberle, W. Lantz, M.A. Rothuizen, H.E. Stutz, R. Binnig, G.K. , The "millipede" - nanotechnology entering data storage, IEEE Transactions on Nanotechnology , 1, (1), 2002, p39-55 Journal Article, 2002 DOI URL TARA - Full Text

Graham Cross, Michel Despont, Urs Dürig, Hugo Rothuizen, Gerd K. Binnig, and Peter Vettiger, William P. King, Thomas W. Kenny, and Kenneth E. Goodson, Atomic force microscope cantilevers for combined thermomechanical data writing and reading, Applied Physics Letters, 78, (9), 2001, p1300-1302 Journal Article, 2001 DOI TARA - Full Text URL

A. Schirmeisen, G. Cross, A. Stalder, P. Grütter and U. Dürig, Metallic adhesion forces and tunneling between atomically defined tip and sample, Applied Surface Science, 157, (4), 2000, p274-279 Journal Article, 2000 DOI URL

U. Dürig, G. Cross, M. Despont, U. Drechsler, W. Häberle, M.I. Lutwyche, H. Rothuizen, R. Stutz, R. Widmer, P. Vettiger, G.K. Binnig, W.P. King and K.E. Goodson, "Millipede" - an AFM data storage system at the frontier of nanotribology, Tribology Letters, 9, (1-2), 2000, p25-32 Journal Article, 2000 DOI URL

A Schirmeisen, G Cross, A Stalder, P Grütter and U Dürig, Metallic adhesion and tunnelling at the atomic scale, New Journal of Physics, 2, 2000, p291-2910 Journal Article, 2000 URL DOI

G. Cross, A. Schirmeisen, A. Stalder, and P. Grütter , M. Tschudy and U. Dürig , Adhesion interaction between atomically defined tip and sample, Physical Review Letters, 80, (21), 1998, p4685-4688 Journal Article, 1998 DOI TARA - Full Text URL

BOILY, S; ALAMDARI, H; CROSS, G; et al., Ball milled ZnO for varistor applications., SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF MECHANICALLY ALLOYED AND NANOCRYSTALLINE MATERIALS 1-2, 235, 1997, p993-998 Journal Article, 1997

D. Axen, S. Bougerolle, R. Sobie, G. Eigen, F. De Jongh, D. Hitlin, M. Kelsey, M. Kleinb, A. Mincer1, b, W. Wisniewski6, b, R. Wolfb, C. Arroyoc, Y. Auc, C. Baltay2, c, T. Boltonc, A. Bazarko, L. Camilleri, E. Hyatt, S. Manly, S. Rabinowitz, P.C. Rowson, S. Seligman, M.H. Shaevitz, S. Smith, R.V. Steiner, I. Abt3, d, D. Alzofon, D. Arnett, F. Barrerad, R. Belld, S.C. Bes, J. Bogart, M. Breidenbach, A. Candia, R. Clausd, H. Cutlerd, R. Davisd, R. Dubois, M. Foss, J. Fox, M. Fox, A. Gioumousis, A. Grebenyuk, G. Haller, V. Hamilton, J. Hodgson, M. Huffer, T. Junk, P. Kim, J. Labsd, H. Neald, D. Nelsond, M. Nordbyd, L. Paffrathd, G. Putallaz, H. Rogers, J.J. Russell, P. Saez, P. Seward, D. Sherdend, K. Skarpaas, R.H. Schindler, A.P. Wait, R. Watt, J. Brau5, e, B. Bugge, A. Weidemanne, D. Gurd, C. Oram, A. Astbury, G. Beer, G. Cross, T. Hodgesg, A. Honmag, R. Keelerg, R. Langstaffg, G. Mason, P. Poffenberger, L. Robertsong, P. Schenkg, A. Turcotg, M. Turcotte6, g, V. Cook, D. Forbush, J. Harrison, H. Kim, Ma Ji, P. Mockett, F. Toevs and E. Vella, , The lead-liquid argon sampling calorimeter of the SLD detector, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 328, (3), 1993, p472-494 Journal Article, 1993 DOI

Research Expertise


Dr Cross's research interests include: multiscale mechanics - including tribology and plastic deformation at surfaces, interfaces and in confined volumes, production of shape and function in nanostructures, nanorheology of complex fluids and soft condensed matter systems including polymers, mechanics of transfer, placement, orientation, and sorting of nano-objects and the development of local and integrated nanoscale scanned probes and manipulators.