Skip to main content

Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin

Trinity Menu Trinity Search

Dr Micha Ruhl

Assistant Professor in Sedimentology

Tel: + 353 1 896 1165 
Office: Museum Building, Office 0.18C
Google Scholar ID:   Dr. Micha Ruhl
ORCID:   Micha Ruhl


• See more of my research at:

• Voting member of the International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy (2020 – )

• Editorial Board member for Geology (2021 – )

In my research I apply Sedimentology, Integrated (chemo-, bio-, cyclo-, magneto) Stratigraphy and Low-Temperature Geochemistry to study a diverse range of topics related to Palaeoclimatic & -environmental Change, Mass Extinctions, and (changes in) Depositional Environments.

Depositional environments: The formation and the physical, biogenic and geochemical characteristics of sediments that are deposited in marine and terrestrial (also lacustrine) sedimentary basins depend on (changes in) sediments supplied, sediment fluxes and climatic and environmental conditions that control the depositional environment. I am interested in understanding local processes and the internal forcing mechanisms in the Earth system that control (changes in) marine and terrestrial depositonal environments, on a basinal, regional and global scale. For example I study past major events in the Earth system that led to the widespread formation of organic-rich black shales (such as during Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs)). With this, I also aim to constrain processes that led to hydrocarbon source-rock formation and the stratigraphical and geographical variations therein.

Palaeoclimatic & -environmental Change, Large Igneous Province volcanism, Astronomical forcing and changes in global (bio)geochemical cycles:
Earth’s climate and the environment have changed on multiple temporal (101-107 yr) and geographical (local–global) scales. I am interested in understanding the (causative) internal and external forcing mechanisms and positive and negative feedback processes that controlled Earth’s climate and environment. More particularly, I am interested in understanding (1) the many ways in which Large Igneous Province (LIP) volcanism impacted on global climate and environments, global biodiversity (mass extinction/evolution) and changes in global (bio)geochemical cycles; (2) how external processes, such as astronomical forcing, impacted global climates, environments and local sedimentary depositional conditions; and (3) constraining background conditions in the global climate & environment, as well as in global (bio)geochemical cycling.

Geo- and Astrochronology: Understanding the absolute and/or relative age of sedimentary successions, and the rate of change in physical, biological and geochemical parameters recorded therein, is essential for understanding the underlying processes that controlled (changes in) Earth’s climate, environment and depositional conditions. I study sedimentary successions and integrate chemo-, bio-, magneto and cyclostratigraphy with radio-isotope chronology, to constrain (1) the rate of change in past climates, environments, biodiversity and (bio)geochemical cycling (for example during Global Change Events, Mass Extinction Events, and OAEs), and (2) constrain detailed relative and absolute time-scales throughout Earth history.


I currently teach:

GSU22202/22205 Sedimentary Processes and Environments (SF/2nd yr)
GLU44902 Spain Fieldwork (SS/4th yr)
GLU44901 Geological Field mapping (SS/4th yr)
ES7055 Deep Time Earth System Science (MSc)

I furthermore contribute to:

GSU11002/11005 Spaceship Earth (JF/1st yr)

Peer-reviewed Publications:

(Google Scholar: Dr. Micha Ruhl)

1.  Hillebrandt, A. v., Krystyn, L., Kürschner, W.M., Bonis, N.R., Ruhl, M., Urlichs, M., with contributions by Bown, P., Kment, K., McRoberts, C., Simms, M., Tomasovych, A. A  candidate GSSP for the base of the Jurassic in the Northern Calcareous Alps (Kuhjoch section; Karwendel Mountains, Tyrol, Austria). International Subcommission on Jurassic Stratigraphy Newsletter 34 (1), 2-20 (2007).

2.  Ruhl, M., Kürschner, W.M., Krystyn, L. Triassic-Jurassic organic carbon isotope stratigraphy of key sections in the western Tethys realm (Austria).Earth and Planetary Science Letters 281 (3-4): 169-187 (2009).

3.  Deenen, M.H.L., Ruhl, M., Bonis, N.R., Krijgsman, W., Kürschner, W.M., Reitsma, M. and Bergen, M.J. v. A new chronology for the end-Triassic mass extinction. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 291 (1-4): 113-125 (2010).
4.  Ruhl, M., Veld, H., Kürschner, W.M. Sedimentary organic matter characterization of the Triassic–Jurassic boundary GSSP at Kuhjoch (Austria). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 292 (1-2): 17-26 (2010).
5.  Bonis, N.R., Ruhl, M. and Kürschner, W.M. Milankovitch-scale palynological turnover across the Triassic-Jurassic transition at St. Audrie’s Bay, SW UK. Journal of the Geological Society, London 167: 877-888 (2010).
6.  Bonis, N.R., Ruhl, M., Kürschner, W.M. Climate change driven black shale deposition during the end-Triassic in the western Tethys. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 290 (1-4): 151-159 (2010).
7.  Ruhl, M., Deenen, M.H.L., Abels, H.A., Bonis, N.R., Krijgsman, W., Kürschner, W.M. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the early Jurassic Hettangian stage and recovery rates following the end-Triassic mass extinction (St. Audrie’s Bay/ East Quantoxhead, UK). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 295 (1-2): 262-276 (2010).
8.  Ruhl, M., Carbon cycle changes during the Triassic-Jurassic transition. LPP Contribution Series 28 (2010), ISBN: 978-90-393-5270-0.

9.  Deenen, M.H.L., Krijgsman, W., Ruhl, M. The quest for E23r at Partridge Island (Bay of Fundy): CAMP emplacement post-dating the end-Triassic extinction event in Canada. Canadian Journal of Earth Sciences 48, 1282-1291 (2011).
10. Ruhl, M., Kürschner, W.M. Multiple phases of carbon-cycle disturbance from Large Igneous Province formation at the Triassic-Jurassic transition. Geology 39 (5), 431-434 (2011).
11.  Ruhl, M., Bonis N.R., Reichart, G.-J., Sinninghe Damsté, J.S., Kürschner, W.M. Atmospheric methane injection caused end-Triassic mass extinction. Science 333, 430 (2011).
12. Hillebrandt, A.v., Krystyn, L., Kurschner, W.M., Bonis, N.R., Ruhl, M., Richoz, S., Schobben, M. A. N., Urlichs, M., Bown, P.R., Kment, K., McRoberts, C.A., Simms, M., Tomasových, A. The Global Stratotype Sections and Point (GSSP) for the base of the Jurassic System at Kuhjoch (Karwendel Mountains, Northern Calcareous Alps, Tyrol, Austria). Episodes 36 (3), 162-198 (2013).
13. Dahl, T.W., Ruhl, M., Hammarlund, E.U., Canfield, D.E., Rosing, M.T., Bjerrum, C.J. Tracing euxinia by molybdenum concentrations in sediments using handheld x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (HHXRF). Chemical Geology 360–361, 241–251 (2013).
14. Hesselbo, S. Bjerrum, C.J., Hinnov, L., MacNiocaill, C., Miller, K., Riding, J., Van de Schootbrugge, B. and the Mochras Revisited Science Team. Mochras Revisited: A New Global standard for Early Jurassic Earth History. Scientific Drilling 16, 81–91 (2013).
15. Hüsing, S., Beniest, A., van der Boon, A., Deenen, M.H.L. Ruhl, M., Krijgsman, W. Magnetostratigraphy of the Lower Jurassic marine successions at St. Audrie’s Bay and East Quantoxhead (Hettangian-Sinemurian; Somerset, UK). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 403, 43–56 (2014).
16. Ullmann, C., Hesselbo, S., Ruhl, M., Thibault, N, Korte, C. Effect of a Jurassic Oceanic Anoxic Event on belemnite ecology and evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 111 (28), 10073–10076 (2014).
17.  Percival, L.M.E., Witt, M.L.I., Mather, T.A., Hermoso, M., Jenkyns, H.C., Hesselbo, S.P., Al- Suwaidi, A.H., Storm, M.S., Xu, W., Ruhl, M. Globally enhanced mercury deposition during the end-Pliensbachian extinction and Toarcian OAE: A link to the Karoo–Ferrar Large Igneous Province. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 428, 267-280 (2015).
18. Korte, C., Hesselbo, S.P., Ullmann, C.V., Dietl, G., Ruhl, M., Schweigert, G., Thibault, N. Jurassic climate mode governed by ocean gateway. Nature Communications 6, 10015, doi:10.1038/ncomms10015 (2015).
19. Jenkyns, H.C., Dickson, A.J., Ruhl, M., Van der Boorn, S. Basalt–seawater interaction, the Plenus Cold Event, enhanced weathering and geochemical change: deconstructing Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Cenomanian–Turonian, Late Cretaceous). Sedimentology 64 (1), 16–43 (2017).
20. Robinson, S.A., Ruhl, M., Astley, D.L., Naafs, B.D.A., Farnsworth, A.J., Bown, P.R., Jenkyns, H.C., Lunt, D.J., O’Brien, C., Pancost, R.D., Markwick, P.J. Early Jurassic North Atlantic sea- surface temperatures from TEX86 palaeothermometry. Sedimentology 64 (1), 215–230 (2017).
21. Xu, W., Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Riding, J.B., Jenkyns, H.C., Orbital pacing of Early Jurassic (Sinemurian) carbon-cycle and environmental change as a cause for source-rock formation and seabed methane seepage. Sedimentology 64 (1), 127–149 (2017).
22. Mette, W., Thibault, N., Krystyn, L., Korte, C., Clemence, M.-E., Ruhl, M., Rizzi, M., Ullmann, C.V., Rhaetian (Late Triassic) biotic and carbon isotope events and intraplatform basin development in the Northern Calcareous, Alps, Tyrol, Austria. Geo. Alp 13, 233–256 (2016).
23. Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Hinnov, L., Jenkyns, H.C., Xu, Weimu, Riding, J.B., Storm, M., Minisini, D., Ullmann, C.V., Leng, M.J. Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 455, 149–165 (2016).
24. Korte, C., Thibault, N., Ullmann, C.V., Clémence, M.-E.; Mette, W., Olsen, T.K., Rizzi, M., Ruhl, M., Brachiopod biogeochemistry and isotope stratigraphy from the Rhaetian Eiberg section in Austria: potentials and limitations. Neues Jahrbuch für Geologie und Paläontologie – Abhandlungen 284, 2, 117-138(22) (2017).
25.  Xu, W., Ruhl, M., Jenkyns, H.C., Hesselbo, S.P., Riding, J.B., Selby, D., Naafs, B.D.A., Weijers, J.W.H., Pancost, R.D., Tegelaar, E.W., Idiz, E.F., Carbon sequestration in an expanded lake system. Nature Geoscience 10, 129–134 (2017) doi: 10.1038/ngeo2871.
26. Percival, L.M.E., Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Mather, T.A., Whiteside, J.H., Mercury evidence for pulsed volcanism during the end-Triassic mass extinction. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 114, 30, 7929–7934 (2017).
27. Dickson, A.J., Gill, B.C., Ruhl, M., Jenkyns, H.C., Porcelli, D., Idiz, E., Lyons, T.W, van den Boorn, S., Molybdenum-isotope chemostratigraphy and paleoceanography of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (Early Jurassic). Paleoceanography 32, 813–829 (2017).
28. Hinnov, L.A., Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Reply to the Comment on “Astronomical constraints on the duration of the Early Jurassic Pliensbachian Stage and global climatic fluctuations” [Earth Planet. Sci. Lett. 455 (2016) 149–165]. Earth and Planetary Science Letters 481, 415–419 (2018).
29. Scaife, J.D., Ruhl, M., Dickson, A.J., Mather, T.A., Jenkyns, H.C., Percival, L.M.E., Hesselbo, S.P., Cartwright, J., Eldrett, J.S., Bergman, S.C., Minisini, D., Sedimentary mercury enrichments as a marker for submarine Large Igneous Province volcanism? Evidence from the Mid-Cenomanian Event and Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous). Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 18, 4253–4275 (2017).
30. Thibault, N., Ruhl, M., Ullmann, C.V., Korte, C., Kemp, D.B., Grocke, D.R., Hesselbo, S.P., The wider context of the Lower Jurassic Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Yorkshire coastal outcrops, UK. Proceedings of the Geologists’ Association 129 (3), 372-391 (2018).
31.  Xu, W., Ruhl, M., Jenkyns, H.C., Huggett, J.M., Idiz, E., Leng, M.J., Minisini, D., Percival, L.M.E., Riding, J.B., Storm, M.S., Tegelaar, E.W., Tosca, N.J., Ullmann, C.V., Weijers, J.W.H., Hesselbo, S.P., Evolution of the Early Jurassic Toarcian carbon-cycle and global climatic controls on local sedimentary processes (Cardigan Bay Basin, UK). Earth and Planetary Science Letters 484, 396–411 (2018).
32. Xu, W., Mac Niocaill, C., Ruhl, M., Jenkyns, H.C., Riding, J.B., Hesselbo, S.P., Magnetostratigraphy of the Toarcian Stage (Lower Jurassic) of the Llanbedr (Mochras Farm) Borehole, Wales: basis for a global standard and implications for volcanic forcing of palaeoenvironmental change. Journal of the Geological Society, London 175 (4), 594-604 (2018).

33. Korte, C., Ruhl, M., Pálfy, J., Ullmann, C.V., Hesselbo, S.P., Chemostratigraphy across the Triassic–Jurassic boundary. AGU Books, Chemostratigraphy Across Major Chronological Boundaries, 183-210 (2018).
34. Percival, L.M.E., Jenkyns, H.C., Mather, T.A., Dickson, A.J., Batenburg, S.J., Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Barclay, R., Jarvis, I., Robinson, S.A., Woelders, L., Does Large Igneous Province volcanism always perturb the mercury cycle? Comparing the records of Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 and the end-Cretaceous to other Mesozoic events. American Journal of Science 318 (8), 799-860 (2018).
35. Sinnesael, M., De Vleeschouwer, D., Zeeden, C., Batenburg, S.J., Da Silva, A.C., de Winter, N.J., Dinarès-Turell, J., Drury, A.J., Gambacorta, G., Hilgen, F.J., Hinnov, L.A., Hudson, A.J.L., Kemp, D.B., Lantink,  M.L., Laurin, J., Li, M., Liebrand, D., Ma, C., Meyers,  S.R., Monkenbusch, J., Montanari, A., Nohl, T., Pälike,  H., Pas, D., Ruhl, M., Thibault, N., Vahlenkamp, M., Valero, L., Wouters, S., Wu, H., Claeys, P., The Cyclostratigraphy Intercomparison Project (CIP): consistency, merits and  pitfalls. Earth-Science Reviews 199, 102965 (2019).
36. Hooker, J.N., Ruhl, M., Dickson, A.J., Hansen, L.N., Idiz, E., Hesselbo, S.P., Cartwright, J., Shale anisotropy and natural hydraulic fracture propagation: An example from the Posidonienschiefer, Germany. Journal of Geophysical Research (JGR): Solid Earth 15 (3), doi:10.1029/2019JB018442 (2020).
37. Storm, M.S., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Ruhl, M., Ullmann, C.V., Xu, W., Leng, M.J., Riding, J.B., Gorbanenko, O., Orbital pacing and secular evolution of the Early Jurassic carbon cycle. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS) 117 (8), 3974-3982 (2020).
38. Sweere, T.C., Dickson, A.J., Jenkyns, H.C., Porcelli, D., Ruhl, M., Murphy, M.J., Idiz, E., van den Boorn, S.H.J.M., Eldrett, J.S., Henderson, G.M, Controls on the Cd-isotope composition of Upper Cretaceous (Cenomanian–Turonian) organic-rich mudrocks from south Texas (Eagle Ford Group). Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 287: 251-262 (2020).

39. Rizzi, M., Thibault, N., Ullmann, C.V., Ruhl, M., Olsen, T.K., Moreau, J., Clémence, M.E., Mette, W., Korte, C., Sedimentology and carbon isotope stratigraphy of the Rhaetian  Hochalm section (Late Triassic, Austria). Global and Planetary Change 191: 103210 (2020).

40. Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Al-Suwaidi, A., Jenkyns, H., Damborenea, S.E., Manceñido, M., Storm, M., Mather, T., Riccardi, A., On the onset of central Atlantic Magmatic Province  (CAMP) volcanism, environmental and carbon-cycle change at the Triassic–Jurassic transition (Neuquen Basin, Argentina). Earth-Science Reviews 208: 103229 (2020).

41.  Li, L., Wang, Y., Kürschner, W.M., Ruhl, M., Vajda, V., Palaeovegetation and palaeoclimate changes across the Triassic–Jurassic transition in the Sichuan Basin, China. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 556: 109891 (2020).

42.  Hesselbo, S.P., Ogg, J.G., Ruhl, M., Hinnov, L.A., Huang, C.J., Chapter 26 - The Jurassic Period. In: Geologic Time Scale 2020, Editor(s): Gradstein, F.M., Ogg, J.G., Schmitz, M.D., Ogg, G.M., Elsevier, 955–1021 (2020).

43.  Hesselbo, S.P., Little, C., Ruhl, M., Thibault, N.R., Ullmann, C.V., Comments on “Paleosalinity determination in ancient epicontinental seas: A case study of the T-OAE in the Cleveland Basin (UK)” by Remirez, M. N. and Algeo, T. J. Earth-Science Reviews 208: 103290 (2020).

44. Kovács, E.B., Ruhl, M., Demény, A., Fórizs, I., Hegyi, I., Horváth-Kostka, Z.R., Móricz, F., Vallner, Z., Pálfy, J., Mercury anomalies and carbon isotope excursions in the western Tethyan Csővár section support the link between CAMP volcanism and the end-Triassic extinction. Global and Planetary Change 194: 103291 (2020).

45. Menini, A., Mattioli, E., Hesselbo, S.P., Ruhl, M., Suan, G., Primary versus carbonate production in the Toarcian, a case study from the Mochras borehole (Wales). Geological Society, London, Special Publications 514, 59-81 (2021). (

46. Xu, W., Weijers, J.W.H., Ruhl, M., Idiz, E.F., Jenkyns, H.C., Riding, J.B., Gorbanenko, O.,Hesselbo, S.P., Molecular and petrographical evidence for lacustrine environmental and biotic change in the Sichuan mega-lake (China) during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event. Geological Society, London, Special Publications 514, 335-357 (2021). (

47. Silva, R.L., Ruhl, M., Barry, C., Reolid, M., Ruebsam, W., Pacing of late Pliensbachian and early Toarcian carbon cycle perturbations and environmental change in the westernmost Tethys (La Cerradura section, Subbetic Zone of the Betic Cordillera, Spain). Geological Society, London, Special Publications 514, 387-408 (2021). (

48. Silva, R.L., Duarte, L.V., Wach, G.D., Ruhl, M., Sadki, D., Gómez, J.J., Hesselbo, S.P., Xu, W., O’Connor, D., Rodrigues, B., Mendonça Filho, J.G., An Early Jurassic (Sinemurian–Toarcian) stratigraphic framework for the occurrence of Organic Matter Preservation Intervals. Earth-Science Reviews 221, 103780 (2021). (

49. Li, Q., Ruhl, M., Wang, Y.-D., Xie, X.-P., An, P.-C., Xu, Y.-Y., Response of Carnian Pluvial Episode evidenced by organic carbon isotopic excursions from western Hubei, South China. Palaeoworld. In press. (

50. Li, Q., Ding, F., Ruhl, M., Wang, Y., Li, Y., Yang, L., Xu, K., Xie, X., Geochemistry of the Lower Cretaceous limestones of the Eastern Tethys Gyabula Formation (Himalaya, southern Tibet): implications for depositional environment and tectonic setting. ArabianJournal of Geosciences 14, 2353 (2021). (

51. Hollaar, T.P., Baker, S.J., Hesselbo, S.P., Deconinck, J.-F., Mander, L., Ruhl, M., Belcher, C.M., Wildfire activity was enhanced by orbital forcing during periods of past global warmth. Nature Communications Earth & Environment 2, 247 (2021). ( (Open-access)

52. Dickson, A.J., Jenkyns, H.C., Idiz, E., Sweere, T.C., Murphy, M.J., van den Boorn, S.H.J.M., Ruhl, M., Eldrett, J.S., Porcelli, D., New Constraints on Global Geochemical Cycling During Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (Late Cretaceous) From a 6-Million-year Long Molybdenum-Isotope Record. Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems 22 (3) (2021) ( (Open-access)

53. Dickson, A.J., Idiz, I., Porcelli, D., Murphy, M.J., Celestino, R., Jenkyns, H.C., Poulton, S.W., Hesselbo, S.P., Hooker, J.N., Ruhl, M., van den Boorn, S.H.J.M., No effect of thermal maturity on the Mo-, U-, Cd- and Zn-isotope 1 compositions of Lower Jurassic organic-rich sediments. Geology, In press.

54. Al-Suwaidi, A.H., Ruhl, M., Jenkyns, H.C., Damborenea, S.E., Manceñido, M.O., Condon, D.J., Angelozzi, G.N., Kamo, S.L., Storm, M., Riccardi, A.C., Hesselbo, S.P., New age constraints on the Lower Jurassic Pliensbachian–Toarcian Boundary at Chacay Melehue (Neuquén Basin, Argentina).     Nature Scientific Reports 12, 4975 (2022) ( (Open-access)

55. Bond, A.D., Dickson, A.J., Ruhl, M., Raine, R., Marine redox change and extinction in Triassic–Jurassic boundary strata from the Larne Basin, Northern Ireland. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 598, 111018 (2022). (

56. Ruhl, M., Hesselbo, S.P., Jenkyns, H.C., Xu, W., Silva, R.L., Matthews, K.J., Mather, T.A., Mac Niocail, C., Riding, J.B., Reduced plate motion controlled timing of Early Jurassic Karoo- Ferrar large igneous province volcanism. Science Advances 8, eabo0866 (2022). (Open-access)

57. Lu, N., Xu, Y., Li, L., Popa, M.E., Chen, H., Xie, X., Ruhl, M., Kürschner, W.M., Wang, Y., Oscillations of a fluvial-lacustrine system and its ecological response in the Late Triassic, northeast Sichuan Basin, China. Geological Journal 58, 1239–1255 (2023).

58. Vallner, Z., Kovacs, E.B., Haas, J., Moricz, F., Ruhl, M., Zajzon, N., Palfy, J., Preservation of orbital forcing in intraplatform carbonates and an astronomical time frame for a multiproxy record of end-Triassic global change from a western Tethyan section (Cs˝ov´ar, Hungary). Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology 617, 111493 (2023).

In Review/ Revision/Submitted:

59. Zhang, L., Wang, Y., Ruhl, M., Xu, Y., Zhu, Y., An, P., Yan, D., Machine-learning based morphological analyses on leaf epidermal cells of Ginkgo biloba L. and their implications for palaeoclimate studies. In review.

60. Trudgill, M., Rae, J.W.B., Crumpton-Banks, J., Whiteford, R., Van Mourik, M., Adloff, M., Burke, A., Corsetti, F., Doherty, D., Greenop, R., Hong, W.-L., Lepland, A., McIntyre, A., Neiroukh, N., Rose, C.V., Ruhl, M., Saunders, D., Steele, R.C.J., Stüeken, E., West, A.J., Greene, S.E., Pulses of ocean acidification at the Triassic-Jurassic boundary recorded by boron isotopes. In review.

61. Bond, A.D., Dickson, A.J., Kovács, E.B., Pálfy, J., Ruhl, M., Global ocean de-oxygenation preceded end-Triassic marine mass extinction. Submitted.

62.  Bond, A.D., Dickson, A.J., Ruhl, M., Bos, R., van de Schootbrugge, B., An oxygenated global ocean during the end-Triassic mass extinction event. In review.

63.  Wang, Y., Ruhl, M., Cao, J., Hu, W., Zhi, D., Tang, Y., Liu, J., Greenhouse warming led to a ~10º latitudinal (poleward) shift of climate belts during the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event (T-OAE, ~183 Ma). Submitted.

(Updated March 2023)