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Class Room Teachingimage of students sitting in a lecture


Classroom-based learning includes:

  • Lectures and large group teaching.
  • Tutorials, Seminars and small group teaching.
  • Laboratory / Practical teaching.

When teaching in classroom situations, strive to view the student holistically. Students will enter your classroom from a variety of backgrounds and will bring with them different expectations, experiences and assumptions.

Guidelines for inclusive classroom-based teaching

Preparing for teaching:

  • Consider your learning outcomes and teaching aims. What teaching approaches can you use to reach these?
  • Aim to use a range of approaches in your teaching sessions (e.g. traditional lecturing, discussion / debate, audio-visual materials etc.). This helps maintain interest and concentration, and ensures that all students can learn using their preferred learning style at least some of the time.

Structuring Teaching:

  • Consider incorporating short breaks into your teaching where students are taught in blocks. This helps maintain energy levels and ensure effective engagement from your students.
  • Begin lectures with a brief recap of what has been covered in the module so far. This need only take a few minutes and can be an effective tool to help students focus and contextualise your current lecture material.
  • Begin lectures with a brief, bullet pointed list of the day's aims, and to end lectures with a restatement of the lecture aims.
  • Aim to make your teaching sessions interactive. It encourages student engagement and helps maintain concentration.
  • Start and finish on time. To allow students time to travel between venues.


Lecture Presentation Skills:powerpoint logo

  • Follow the TIC guidelines for accessible Powerpoint presentations.
  • Follow the TIC guidelines for presenting in an inclusive manner.
  • Ensure you repeat any questions or comments made by students. This is particularly important if you are using a microphone and students are not. It ensures all students can hear all comments / questions and also enables participants using an induction loop to engage with the responses.

Lecture Information and Materials:

  • Use a range of teaching materials. This appeals to a range of learner preferences (e.g. text based, imagery, online, audio-visual).
  • Ensure all materials follow the Accessible Information guidelines from Trinity Accessibility policy.
  • Circulate any lecture handouts / teaching resources to students online in advance of lectures. This allows students to familiarise themselves with new subject matter and terminology.
  • When using visual aids, allow time for students to look at or read what is being presented before you talk about it.

Just as lecturers need time to prepare for teaching sessions, students benefit from having the opportunity to absorb information and consider ideas and points for a discussion in advance. Handouts can also help students follow the structure of the lecture.

Msc Student, Non-Native English Speaker
‘I do not have time to listen to the professor, to understand him, and to take proper notes. I cannot do all this together….doing two works, all three does not'

Inclusive Lecture Environments

For information on guidelines for inclusive classroom environments see Physical Environment.

Note: The physical environment in practical classes and workshops may cause particular difficulties for students with mobility difficulties, as these classes often involve a lot of movement.

A note on practicals / Laboratory - based classes:

There may be barriers to the full participation of students in practical / lab bases classes. For example:

  • a physical or sensory disability,
  • limitations to University resources (e.g. time, equipment),
  • cultural / religious considerations.

It is useful here to consider the key objective of your practical classes. For example:

If understanding theories, concepts and processes is key then it may be possible to substitute alternative activities when a student is unable to carry out a practical task. For example, it may be sufficient if students observe processes (in real time, or via AV resources) rather than actually conduct them.

If it is crucial that students be able to perform the activities in question (e.g. skills based learning outcomes rather than theory based) then it may be necessary for all students to perform the task in question.


Take time to complete a brief self-evaluation of your:

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Last updated 28 February 2019 by Trinity Inclusive Curriculum (Email).