Selected Journal Articles Organised by Theme
Ding, W.W., F. Murray, and T.E. Stuart. (2006). "Gender difference in patenting in the academic life sciences". Science 313.5787, 665-667.
Analysis of 4227 life scientists over a 30-year period. Regressions shows that women faculty members patent at about 40% of the rate of men. Gender gaps in patenting rates are declining, but the gap remains relatively large.
Bauer, C.C. and B.B. Baltes. (2002). “Reducing the Effects of Gender Stereotypes on Performance Evaluations.” Sex Roles 47.9/10 (2002): 465-476, 9/10.
Explores the efficacy of structured free recall intervention as a tool for minimizing the influence of gender stereotypes on performance ratings. Free recall intervention is when raters rely on their memories of specific behaviors of the person being rated, rather than on overall judgments.
Dar-Nimrod, I. and S.J. Heine. "Exposure to Scientific Theories Affects Women's Math Performance" Science 314.5798 (2006).
Explores how women's math performance is affected by stereotypes that link female underachievement to either genetic or experiential causes. Suggests that women tend to perceive gender differences in math to be innate or genetic, but when women consider such differences to be based on theories of nurture rather than nature, they can improve their performance.
Greenhaus, J. H. and S. Parasuraman. “Job Performance Attributions and Career Advancement Prospects: An Examination of Gender and Race Effects.” (PDF, 1.3 MB). Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 55.2 (1993): 273-297.
Compares how the success of women and black managers was interpreted by their supervisors in relation to white male managers. Found that the more successful a woman or black manager was, the more likely a supervisor attributed his or her success to factors outside of ability and effort, such as luck or the help of others.
Martell, R.F. "Reducing the Performance-Cue Bias in Work Behavior Ratings: Can Groups Help?" (PDF, 80 kB) Journal of Applied Psychology 87.6 (2002): 1032-1041.
Study suggests that groups can be used to avoid the introduction of bias. However, for groups to be an asset and not a potential liability, two conditions are relevant: First, the magnitude of the particular bias cannot be large. When a bias is large, and thus pervasive, group-based judgments may reflect amplification and not attenuation. Fortunately many social judgment biases reside in the small-to-moderate range and, thus, it is not unusual for individuals to sometimes escape their influence. This suggests that in a group context there is an increased probability that one or more members will have an unbiased response. However, the presence of an unbiased response often is not enough; it must surface in the course of group deliberation.
Maurer, T. J. and M. A. Taylor. “Is Sex by Itself Enough? An Exploration of Gender Bias Issues in Performance Appraisal.” (PDF, 1.1 MB) Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes 60 (1994): 231-251.
Expands on prior research about the effect of gender on performance ratings to include the effects of the perceived masculinity/femininity of ratees in conjunction with occupation and gender-relevant stereotypes held by raters. The study also explores underlying variables interrelated to the gender-bias process, and concludes that although gender-related variables significantly affected performance ratings, sex by itself was of no significant value. Calls attention to, but does not examine, the “double bind” effect, that is masculine-type behavior by women leaders that enhances their perceived competence but negatively impacts interpersonal judgments.
Sackett, P. R., C. L. Z. DuBois, and A. Wiggins Noe. “Tokenism in Performance Evaluation: The Effects of Work Group Representation on Male-Female and White-Black Differences in Performance Ratings.” Journal of Applied Psychology 76.2 (1991): 263-267.
Examined the performance ratings of individuals from 486 work-groups across a wide variety of jobs. When the proportion of women was small, women were given lower-performance ratings than men even after male-female cognitive ability, psychomotor ability, education, and experience differences were controlled. When women constitute less than 20% of a working-group, they are rated 1/2 standard deviation lower than men, and that this group-phenomenon affect is not symmetrical, i.e. when men are a minority in a working-group, they are not rated lower. This lack of symmetry indicates that women’s devaluation in the workplace cannot be fully explained by a general tokenism effect. Replicating the study with racial differences did not yield the same results.
Steele, C.M. “A Threat in the Air: How Stereotypes Shape Intellectual Identity and Performance.” American Psychologist (1997): 613-629.
Steele proffers a theory of stereotype threat and domain identification to describe additional pressures that negatively-stereotyped groups face in academic contexts. Contends that stereotypes are tangible threats that women and minorities experience every day, and that even in situations where the threat of prejudicial treatment is slight (such as when taking a standardized test), stereotypes can still produce a significant negative effect.
Steele, C. and J. Aronson. “Stereotype Threat and the Intellectual Performance of African Americans.” Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 69.5 (1995): 797-811.
Examines the effects of stereotype threat (i.e., the risk of self-confirming a negative stereotype about one’s social group). Describes experiments that measured African American students’ performance on standardized tests (compared to whites) and concerns about being judged according to the stereotypes that they are less intelligent or less able to perform well on standardized tests than their white counterparts. Concludes that stereotype threat causes an inability to process information that is similar to (and can exacerbate) other evaluative pressures.
Wood, W. and S. J. Karten. “Sex Differences in Interaction Style as a Product of Perceived Sex Differences in Competence.” Personality and Social Psychology 50.2 (1986): 341-347.
Observed males’ and females’ interaction styles while they worked in small, mixed-sex groups on discussion tasks. Men were perceived by themselves and others as higher in competence than women, and men engaged in more active tasks (e.g., giving opinions) while women exhibited a more positive social behavior (e.g., agreeing, being friendly). Alternatively, in groups where the experimenters manipulated members' status by providing false feedback that they were high or low relative to their group in intellectual and moral aptitude, high-status members fulfilled active positions irrespective of sex. Shows that status can override the gender-to-competence link.
Suitor, J. J., D. Mecom, and I. S. Feld. (2001). "Gender, household labor, and scholarly productivity among university professors". Gender Issues 19.4, 50-67.
Uses information about household division of labor from a sample of 637 faculty members at a large research university to explore the relationship with scholarly productivity and household labor. Found that even among academics, household labor falls into traditional categories, i.e. women are responsible for cleaning and childcare. The study found that women professors shoulder greater household responsibilities than their male counterparts. Tests the hypothesis that this double-burden translates into lower scholarly productivity for women academics. Determines that tenure-track women faculty members with children in the home are more likely to have lower productivity rates than their male or childless female colleagues.
Rier, D. (2003). "Gender, lifecourse and publication decisions in toxic-exposure epidemiology: `Now!' versus ‘wait a minute!’" Social Studies of Science 33.2, 269-300.
Study of gender and lifecourse in science that focuses on publication decisions. Based on interviews with sixty-one U.S. toxic-exposure epidemiologists about their publication decisions with an emphasis on “high profile” publications that warrant public and media attention. Preliminary data suggests gender differences in publication decisions. On the whole, men were more comfortable publishing controversial articles in visible journals at earlier ages and then became more cautious with age. Women were less homogenous, but often showed the opposite pattern and published more controversial work later in their careers. These differences may stem in part from gender differences in self-confidence, risk-taking, and competitiveness.
Simonton, D.K. (1997). "Creative productivity: A predictive and explanatory model of career trajectories and landmarks". Psychological Review, 104, 66-89.
Quality is a probabilistic consequence of quantity. In other words, the odds of producing an influential or successful idea are a positive function of the total number of ideas generated. These and other findings are the result of the author's development of a model that explains and predicts both longitudinal and cross-sectional variation in the output of major and minor creative products.