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Jane Stout
Professor, Botany

Biography

My research expertise is in the field of ecology, with an emphasis on human impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. I seek to understand the processes and consequences of changes in land management and non-native species invasions, using plant-pollinator interactions as a model system. There is global concern over loss of pollination services and my research informs biodiversity conservation and agriculture, both nationally and internationally. I employ field-based experimental studies combined with laboratory analyses to characterise insect behaviour, plant breeding systems, biodiversity and conservation of pollinators and their impacts on plant population dynamics. My research programme is inter-disciplinary: my own expertise covers both botanical and zoological fields, but I also collaborate widely with geographers, socio-economists, chemists and molecular biologists, both nationally and internationally.

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Hudson et al, The database of the PREDICTS (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) project, Ecology and Evolution, 7, 2017, p145-188 Journal Article, 2017 URL DOI

Naughton J, Tiedeken EJ, Garvey M, Stout JC, Rowan NJ , Pulsed light inactivation of the bumble bee trypanosome parasite Crithidia bombi, Journal of Apicultural Research, 56, 2017, p144-154 Journal Article, 2017 URL DOI

Stout JC, Tiedeken EJ , Direct interactions between invasive plants and native pollinators: evidence, impacts and approaches, Functional Ecology, 31, 2016, p38-46 Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

Rader, R., Bartomeus, I., Garibaldi, L.A., Garratt, M.P.D., Howlett, B.G., Winfree, R., Cunningham, S.A., Mayfield, M.M., Arthur, A.D., Andersson, G.K.S., Bommarco, R., Brittain, C., Carvalheiro, L.G., Chacoff, N.P., Entling, M.H., Foully, B., Freitas, B.M., Gemmill-Herren, B., Ghazoul, J., Griffin, S.R., Gross, C.L., Herbertsson, L., Herzog, F., Hipólito, J., Jaggar, S., Jauker, F., Klein, A.-M., Kleijn, D., Krishnan, S., Lemos, C.Q., Lindström, S.A.M., Mandelik, Y., Monteiro, V.M., Nelson, W., Nilsson, L., Pattemore, D.E., de O. Pereira, N., Pisanty, G., Potts, S.G., Reemer, M., Rundlöf, M., Sheffield, C.S., Scheper, J., Schüepp, C., Smith, H.G., Stanley, D.A., Stout, J.C., Szentgyörgyi, H., Taki, H., Vergara, C.H., Viana, B.F., Woyciechowski, M., Non-bee insects are important contributors to global crop pollination, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 2016 Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

Brown MJF, Dicks LV, Paxton RJ, Baldock KCR, Barron AB, Chauzat M-P, Freitas BM, Goulson D, Jepsen S, Kremen C, Li J, Neumann P, Pattemore DE, Potts SG, Schweiger O, Seymour CL, Stout JC, A horizon scan of future threats and opportunities for pollinators and pollination, PeerJ, 4, 2016, pe2249- Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Tiedeken, Erin Jo, Egan, Paul A., Stevenson, Philip C., Wright, Geraldine A., Brown, Mark J. F., Power, Eileen F., Farrell, Iain, Matthews, Sharon M., Stout, Jane C., Nectar chemistry modulates the impact of an invasive plant on native pollinators, Functional Ecology, 30, 2016, p885-893 Journal Article, 2016 TARA - Full Text URL DOI

De Palma A, Abrahamczyk S, Aizen MA, Albrecht M, Basset Y, Bates A, Blake RJ, Boutin C, Bugter R, Connop S, Cruz-López L, Cunningham SA, Darvill B, Diekötter T, Dorn S, Downing N, Entling MH, Farwig N, Felicioli A, Fonte SJ, Fowler R, Franzén M, Goulson D, Grass I, Hanley ME, Hendrix SD, Herrmann F, Herzog F, Holzschuh A, Jauker B, Kessler M, Knight ME, Kruess A, Lavelle P, Le Féon V, Lentini P, Malone LA, Marshall J, Pachón EM, McFrederick QS, Morales CL, Mudri-Stojnic S, Nates-Parra G, Nilsson SG, Öckinger E, Osgathorpe L, Parra-H A, Peres CA, Persson AS, Petanidou T, Poveda K, Power EF, Quaranta M, Quintero C, Rader R, Richards MH, Roulston Ta, Rousseau L, Sadler JP, Samnegård U, Schellhorn NA, Schüepp C, Schweiger O, Smith-Pardo AH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stout JC, Tonietto RK, Tscharntke T, Tylianakis JM, Verboven HAF, Vergara CH, Verhulst J, Westphal C, Yoon HJ, Purvis A., Predicting bee community responses to land-use changes: Effects of geographic and taxonomic biases, Scientific Reports, 6, 2016, p31153- Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

Power EF Jackson Z and Stout JC , Organic farming and landscape factors affect abundance and richness of hoverflies (Diptera, Syrphidae) in grasslands, Journal of Insect Conservation, 9, 2016, p244-253 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Zimmermann J, Stout JC, Underestimating neonicotinoid exposure: how extent and magnitude may be affected by land use change, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 23, 2016, p7050-7054 Journal Article, 2016 DOI URL

Egan P, Stevenson PC, Wright GA, Boylan F, Stout JC, Plant toxin levels in nectar vary spatially across native and introduced populations, Journal of Ecology, 104, 2016, p1106-1115 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Zimmermann, J., González, A, Jones, M.B., O'Brien, P., Stout, J.C. & S. Green, Assessing land-use history for reporting on cropland dynamics - a comparison between the Land-Parcel Identification System and traditional inter-annual approaches, Land Use Policy, 52, 2016, p30 - 40 Journal Article, 2016 URL DOI

Kessler SC, Tiedeken EJ, Simcock KL, Derveau S, Mitchell J, Softley S, Radcliffe A, Stout JC, Wright GA, Bees prefer foods containing neonicotinoid pesticides, Nature , 521, (7550), 2015, p74-76 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

Tiedeken EJ, Stout JC, Insect-flower interaction network structure is resilient to a temporary pulse of floral resources from invasive Rhododendron ponticum, PLoS ONE, 10, 2015, pe0119733 - Journal Article, 2015 TARA - Full Text DOI URL

Stout JC, Finn JA, Recognising the value of insects in providing ecosystem services, Ecological Entomology, 40, 2015, p1 - 2 Journal Article, 2015 URL TARA - Full Text DOI

Dauber J, Cass S, Gabriel D, Harte K, Åström S, O'Rourke E & Stout JC, Yield-biodiversity trade-off in patchy fields of Miscanthus x giganteus, Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 7, (3), 2015, p455-467 Journal Article, 2015 DOI URL

Tiedeken EJ, Stout JC, Stevenson PC, Wright GA, Bumblebees are not deterred by ecologically relevant concentrations of nectar toxins., The Journal of experimental biology, 217, (Pt 9), 2014, p1620-5 Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text

O'Rourke AT, Fitzpatrick U, Stout JC , Spring foraging resources and the behaviour of pollinating insects in fixed dune ecosystems, Journal of Pollination Ecology, 13, 2014, p161-173 Journal Article, 2014 TARA - Full Text

Breeze TD, Vaissière BE, Bommarco R, Petanidou T, Seraphides N, Kozák L, Scheper J, Biesmeijer JC, Kleijn D, Gyldenkærne S, Moretti M, Holzschuh A, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stout JC, Pärtel M, Zobel M, Potts SG, Agricultural policies exacerbate honeybee pollination service supply-demand mismatches across europe., PloS one, 9, (1), 2014, pe82996 Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text

Stout JC, Casey LE, Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects insect-flower interaction networks in Ireland, Acta Oecologica, 55, 2014, p78 - 85 Journal Article, 2014

Stout JC, Duffy KJ, Egan PA, Harbourne M, Hodkinson TR, Genetic diversity and floral width variation in introduced and native populations of a long-lived woody perennial, AoB Plants., 19, 2014, p7- Journal Article, 2014 TARA - Full Text DOI

Stout JC, Anthropogenic impacts on pollination networks and plant mating systems, Functional Ecology, 28, 2014, p1 - 2 Journal Article, 2014 DOI URL

Bourke D, Stanley D, O'Rourke E, Thompson R, Carnus T, Dauber J, Emmerson M, Whelan P, Hecq F, Fynn E, Dolan L, Stout JC, Response of farmland biodiversity to the introduction of bioenergy crops: effects of local factors and surrounding landscape context, Global Change Biology Bioenergy, 6, 2014, 275-289 Journal Article, 2014

Stanley DA, Stout JC, Pollinator sharing between a mass flowering entomophilous bioenergy crop (oilseed rape) and co-flowering wild plants, Plant Ecology, 215, 2014, p315-325 Journal Article, 2014

Tiedeken EJ, Stout JC, Stevenson PC, Wright GA, The bumblebee Bombus terrestris has poor acuity for the detection of toxins in nectar, Journal of Experimental Biology, 217, 2014, p1620-1625 Journal Article, 2014 DOI TARA - Full Text URL

Carvalheiro L, Biesmeijer J, Benadi G, Fruend J, Stang M, Bartomeus I, Kaiser-Bunbury C, Baude M, Gomes S, Merckx V, Baldock K, Bennett A, Boada R, Bommarco R, Cartar R, Chacoff N, Danhardt J, Dicks L, Ekroos J, Henson K, Holzschuh A, Junker R, Lopezaraiza-Mikel M, Memmott J, Montero-Castaño A, Nelson I, Petanidou T, Power E, Rundlöf M, Smith H, Stout JC, Temitope K, Tscharntke T, Tscheulin T, Vila M, & Kunin WE , The potential for indirect effects between co-flowering plants via shared pollinators depends on resource abundance, accessibility and relatedness, Ecology Letters, 17, 2014, p1389-1399 Journal Article, 2014 DOI URL TARA - Full Text

Hudson LN, Newbold T, Contu S, Hill SL, Lysenko I, De Palma A, Phillips HR, Senior RA, Bennett DJ, Booth H, Choimes A, Correia DL, Day J, Echeverría-Londoño S, Garon M, Harrison ML, Ingram DJ, Jung M, Kemp V, Kirkpatrick L, Martin CD, Pan Y, White HJ, Aben J, Abrahamczyk S, Adum GB, Aguilar-Barquero V, Aizen MA, Ancrenaz M, Arbeláez-Cortés E, Armbrecht I, Azhar B, Azpiroz AB, Baeten L, Báldi A, Banks JE, Barlow J, Batáry P, Bates AJ, Bayne EM, Beja P, Berg Å, Berry NJ, Bicknell JE, Bihn JH, Böhning-Gaese K, Boekhout T, Boutin C, Bouyer J, Brearley FQ, Brito I, Brunet J, Buczkowski G, Buscardo E, Cabra-García J, Calviño-Cancela M, Cameron SA, Cancello EM, Carrijo TF, Carvalho AL, Castro H, Castro-Luna AA, Cerda R, Cerezo A, Chauvat M, Clarke FM, Cleary DF, Connop SP, D'Aniello B, da Silva PG, Darvill B, Dauber J, Dejean A, Diekötter T, Dominguez-Haydar Y, Dormann CF, Dumont B, Dures SG, Dynesius M, Edenius L, Elek Z, Entling MH, Farwig N, Fayle TM, Felicioli A, Felton AM, Ficetola GF, Filgueiras BK, Fonte SJ, Fraser LH, Fukuda D, Furlani D, Ganzhorn JU, Garden JG, Gheler-Costa C, Giordani P, Giordano S, Gottschalk MS, Goulson D, Gove AD, Grogan J, Hanley ME, Hanson T, Hashim NR, Hawes JE, Hébert C, Helden AJ, Henden JA, Hernández L, Herzog F, Higuera-Diaz D, Hilje B, Horgan FG, Horváth R, Hylander K, Isaacs-Cubides P, Ishitani M, Jacobs CT, Jaramillo VJ, Jauker B, Jonsell M, Jung TS, Kapoor V, Kati V, Katovai E, Kessler M, Knop E, Kolb A, K"rösi Á, Lachat T, Lantschner V, Le Féon V, LeBuhn G, Légaré JP, Letcher SG, Littlewood NA, López-Quintero CA, Louhaichi M, Lövei GL, Lucas-Borja ME, Luja VH, Maeto K, Magura T, Mallari NA, Marin-Spiotta E, Marshall EJ, Martínez E, Mayfield MM, Mikusinski G, Milder JC, Miller JR, Morales CL, Muchane MN, Muchane M, Naidoo R, Nakamura A, Naoe S, Nates-Parra G, Navarrete Gutierrez DA, Neuschulz EL, Noreika N, Norfolk O, Noriega JA, Nöske NM, O'Dea N, Oduro W, Ofori-Boateng C, Oke CO, Osgathorpe LM, Paritsis J, Parra-H A, Pelegrin N, Peres CA, Persson AS, Petanidou T, Phalan B, Philips TK, Poveda K, Power EF, Presley SJ, Proença V, Quaranta M, Quintero C, Redpath-Downing NA, Reid JL, Reis YT, Ribeiro DB, Richardson BA, Richardson MJ, Robles CA, Römbke J, Romero-Duque LP, Rosselli L, Rossiter SJ, Roulston TH, Rousseau L, Sadler JP, Sáfián S, Saldaña-Vázquez RA, Samnegård U, Schüepp C, Schweiger O, Sedlock JL, Shahabuddin G, Sheil D, Silva FA, Slade EM, Smith-Pardo AH, Sodhi NS, Somarriba EJ, Sosa RA, Stout JC, Struebig MJ, Sung YH, Threlfall CG, Tonietto R, Tóthmérész B, Tscharntke T, Turner EC, Tylianakis JM, Vanbergen AJ, Vassilev K, Verboven HA, Vergara CH, Vergara PM, Verhulst J, Walker TR, Wang Y, Watling JI, Wells K, Williams CD, Willig MR, Woinarski JC, Wolf JH, Woodcock BA, Yu DW, Zaitsev AS, Collen B, Ewers RM, Mace GM, Purves DW, Scharlemann JP, Purvis A, The PREDICTS database: a global database of how local terrestrial biodiversity responds to human impacts., Ecology and evolution, 4, (24), 2014, p4701-35 Journal Article, 2014 TARA - Full Text DOI URL

Rortais A, Stout J, Dorne J-L, Hardy T , Editorial: EFSA calls for integrated and coordinated actions at EU and international levels to address global declines of pollinators, 2013, - Miscellaneous, 2013

Power EF, Kelly DL, Stout JC , The impacts of traditional and novel herbicide application methods on target plants, non-target plants and production in intensive grasslands, Weed Research, 53, 2013, p131 - 139 Journal Article, 2013 URL TARA - Full Text

Power EF, Kelly DL, Stout JC, Impacts of organic and conventional dairy farmer attitude, behaviour and knowledge on farm biodiversity in Ireland, Journal for Nature Conservation, 21, 2013, p272 - 278 Journal Article, 2013 DOI

Stanley DA, Stout JC , Quantifying the impacts of bioenergy crops on pollinating insect abundance and diversity: a field scale evaluation reveals taxon-specific responses., Journal of Applied Ecology, 50, 2013, p335 - 344 Journal Article, 2013

Stanley DA, Gunning D, Stout JC , Pollinators and pollination of oilseed rape crops (Brassica napus L.) in Ireland: ecological and economic incentives for pollinator conservation, Journal of Insect Conservation , 17, 2013, p1181 - 1189 Journal Article, 2013 URL

Ugoletti P, Reidy D, Jones, MB, Stout JC , Do native bees have the potential to promote interspecific pollination in introduced Impatiens species? , Journal of Pollination Ecology, 11, (1), 2013, p1 - 8 Journal Article, 2013

Stanley DA, Knight ME, Stout JC, Ecological Variation in Response to Mass-Flowering Oilseed Rape and Surrounding Landscape Composition by Members of a Cryptic Bumblebee Complex., PloS one, 8, (6), 2013, pe65516 Journal Article, 2013 TARA - Full Text DOI URL

Ollerton J, Price V, Armbruster WS, Memmott J, Watts S, Waser NM, Totland Ø, Goulson D, Alarcón R, Stout JC, Tarrant S , Overplaying the role of honey bees as pollinators: A comment on Aebi and Neumann (2011), Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 27, (3), 2012, p141 - 142 Journal Article, 2012

Nielsen A, Dauber J, Kunin WE, Lamborn E, Jauker B, Moora M, Potts SG, Reitan T, Roberts S, Sõber V, Settele J, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stout JC, Tscheulin T, Vaitis M, Vivarelli D, Biesmeijer JC & Petanidou T., Pollinator community responses to the spatial population structure of wild plants: A pan-European approach, Basic and Applied Ecology, 13, 2012, p489 - 499 Journal Article, 2012

Power EF, Kelly DL, Stout JC, Organic farming and landscape structure: Effects on insect-pollinated plant diversity in intensively managed grasslands, PLoS ONE, 7, (5), 2012, pe38073- Journal Article, 2012 DOI URL TARA - Full Text

Stout JC, Plant invasions: their threats in the Irish context, Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 111B, (3), 2011, p135 - 141 Journal Article, 2011

Dietzsch AC, Stanley DA, Stout JC, Relative abundance of an invasive alien plant affects native pollination processes. , Oecologia, 167(2):, (2), 2011, p469 - 479 Journal Article, 2011 DOI

Power EF, Stout JC, Organic dairy farming: impacts on insect-flower interaction networks and pollination, Journal of Applied Ecology, 48, (3), 2011, p561-569 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text

Waldren, S., Scally, L., Atalah, J et al., Biodiversity and Environmental Change: An Integrated Study Encompassing a Range of Scales, Taxa and Habitats, Johnstown Castle, Co. Wexford, Ireland, Environmental Protection Agency, December, 2011, 1, 49 Report, 2011 URL

Moora M, Berger S, Davison J, Öpik M, Bommarco R, Bruelheide H, Kühn I, Kunin WE, Metsis M, Rortais A, Vanatoa E, Vanatoa A, Stout JC, Truusa M, Westphal C, Zobel M, Walther G-R , Alien plants associate with widespread generalist arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal taxa: evidence from a continental-scale study using massively parallel 454-sequencing, Journal of Biogegraphy, 38, 2011, p1305 - 1317 Journal Article, 2011

Duffy KJ, Fay MF, Smith RJ, Stout JC, Population genetics and conservation of the small white orchid, Pseudorchis albida, in Ireland, Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 11B, 2011, p1 - 9 Journal Article, 2011

Duffy KJ, Stout JC, Effects of conspecific and heterospecific floral density on the pollination of two related rewarding orchids, Plant Ecology, 212, 2011, p1397 - 1406 Journal Article, 2011

Ugoletti P, Stout JC, Jones MB, Ecophysiological traits of invasive and non-invasive introduced Impatiens species, Biology and Environment: Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 111B, (3), 2011, p143 - 156 Journal Article, 2011

Mayer C, Adler L, Armbruster WS, Dafni A, Eardley C, Huang S-Q, Kevan PG, Ollerton J, Packer L, Ssymank A, Stout JC, Potts SG, Pollination ecology in the 21st century: Key Questions for future research, Journal of Pollination Ecology, 3, 2011, p8 - 23 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text

Hammen VC, Biesmeijer JC, Bommarco R, Budrys E, Christensen TR, Fronzek S, Grabaum R, Jaksic P, Klotz S, Kramarz P, Kroel-Dulay G, Kühn I, Mirtl M, Moora M, Petanidou T, Potts SG, Rortais A, Schulze CH, Steffan-Dewenter, Stout J, Szentgyörgyi H, Vighi M, Vila M, Vujic, Wolf T, Zavala G, Settele J, Kunin WE, Establishment of a cross-European field site network in the ALARM project for assessing large-scale changes in biodiversity, Science of the Total Environment , 164, 2010, p337 - 348 Journal Article, 2010

Claire Micheneau, Karl J. Duffy, Rhian J. Smith, Laura J. Stevens, Jane C. Stout, Laure Civeyrel, Robyn S. Cowan and Michael F. Fay, Plastid microsatellites for the study of genetic variability in the widespread Cephalanthera longifolia, C. damasonium and C. rubra (Neottieae, Orchidaceae), and cross-amplification in other Cephalanthera species, Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 163, 2010, p181 - 193 Journal Article, 2010

Dauber J, Biesmeijer J, Gabriel D, Kunin WE, Lamborn E, Meyer B, Nielsen A, Potts SG, Sõber V, Steffan-Dewenter I, Settele J, Stout JC, Teder T, Tscheulin T, Vivarelli D, Petanidou T, Effects of plant population structure on flower visitation and seed set of wild plants at two spatial scales: a pan-European approach, Journal of Ecology, 98, 2010, p188 - 196 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Oliver Schweiger, Jacobus C. Biesmeijer, Riccardo Bommarco, Thomas Hickler, Philip E. Hulme, Stefan Klotz, Ingolf Kühn, Mari Moora, Anders Nielsen, Ralf Ohlemüller, Theodora Petanidou, Simon G. Potts, Petr Py ek, Jane C. Stout, Martin T. Sykes, Thomas Tscheulin, Montserrat Vilà, Gian-Reto Walther , Catrin Westphal, Marten Winter, Martin Zobel, Josef Settele, Multiple stressors on biotic interactions: how climate change and alien species interact to affect pollination, Biological Reviews, 85, 2010, p777 - 795 Journal Article, 2010

Mapping plant-invader integration into plant-pollinator networks in, editor(s)Settele, J, Penev, L, Georgiev, T, Grabaum, R, Grobelnik, V, Hammen, V, Klotz, S, Kotarac, M, Kuehn, I , Atlas of Biodiversity Risk, Sofia-Moscow, Pensoft Publishers, 2010, pp210 - 211, [Vilà, M, Bartomeus, I, Dietzsch, A, Petanidou, T, Steffan-Dewenter, I, Stout, J, Tscheulin, T] Book Chapter, 2010 URL

Dauber J, Jones MB, Stout JC, The impact of biomass crop cultivation on temperate biodiversity, Global Change Biology: Bioenergy, 2, 2010, p289 - 309 Journal Article, 2010

Nienhuis CM, Dietzsch AC, Stout JC, The impacts of an invasive alien plant and its removal on native bees, Apidologie, 40, 2009, p388 - 409 Journal Article, 2009 URL

Stout JC, Morales C, Ecological impacts of invasive alien species on bees, Apidologie, 40, 2009, p388 - 409 Journal Article, 2009

Milbau A, Stout JC, Graae BJ and Nijs I, A hierarchical framework for integrating invasibility experiments incorporating different factors and spatial scales, Biological Invasions, 11, (4), 2009, p941 - 950 Journal Article, 2009

Vilà M, Bartomeus I, Dietzsch AC, Petanidou T, Steffan-Dewenter I, Stout JC, Tscheulin T, Invasive plant integration into native plant-pollinator networks across Europe, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B Biological Sciences, 276, 2009, p3887 - 3893 Journal Article, 2009 URL

Duffy KJ, Scopece G, Cozzolino S, Fay MF, Smith RJ, Stout JC, The ecology and genetic diversity of the dense-flowered orchid (Neotinea maculata) at the centre and edge of its range, Annals of Botany, 104, 2009, p507 - 516 Journal Article, 2009

Neinhuis CM, Stout JC, Effectiveness of native bumblebee pollinators on flowers of the alien invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera (Balsaminaceae) in Ireland, Journal of Pollination Ecology, 1, (1), 2009, p1 - 11 Journal Article, 2009 URL

Williamson M, Stout JC, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Milbau A, Hall AR, A provisional list of Irish archaeophytes, Irish Naturalists' Journal, 29, 2008, p30 - 35 Journal Article, 2008

Duffy KJ, Kingston NE, Sayers BA, Roberts DL, Stout JC, Inferring national and regional declines of rare orchid species using probabilistic models, Conservation Biology, 23, 2008, p184 - 195 Journal Article, 2008

Duffy KJ, Stout JC, The effects of plant density and nectar reward on bee visitation to the endangered orchid Spiranthes romanzoffiana, Acta Oecologia, 34, 2008, p131 - 138 Journal Article, 2008

Milbau A, Stout JC, Factors associated with alien plants transitioning from casual, to naturalized, to invasive, Conservation Biology, 22, 2008, p308 - 317 Journal Article, 2008 DOI

Williamson M, Dehnen-Schmutz K, Hill M, Kühn I, Klotz S, Milbau A, Py ek P, Stout JC, The distribution of range sizes of native and alien plants in four European countries and the effects of residence time, Diversity and Distributions , 15, 2008, p158 - 166 Journal Article, 2008

Stout, J.C., Reproductive biology of the invasive exotic shrub, Rhododendron ponticum L. (Ericaceae), Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 155, (3), 2007, p373 - 381 Journal Article, 2007 URL DOI TARA - Full Text

Stout JC, Pollination of invasive Rhododendron ponticum (Ericaceae) in Ireland, Apidologie, 38, (2), 2007, p198 - 206 Journal Article, 2007 TARA - Full Text URL DOI

Stout, J.C., Parnell, J.A.N., Arroyo, J., Crowe, T.P., Pollination ecology and seed production of Rhododendron ponticum in native and exotic habitats, Biodiversity and Conservation, 15, (2), 2006, p755 - 777 Journal Article, 2006 URL DOI TARA - Full Text

Murray TE, Stout JC, Brown MJF , Additions to the Irish Apoidea: Andrena trimmerana and Osmia rufa (Hymenoptera: Andrenidae and Megachilidae) , Irish Naturalists' Journal , 28, 2005, p48 - 49 Journal Article, 2005

Goulson D, Peat J, Stout JC, Tucker J, Darvill B, Derwent LC, Hughes WOH , Can alloethism in workers of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, be explained in terms of foraging efficiency?, Animal Behaviour, 64, (1), 2002, p123 - 130 Journal Article, 2002 DOI URL

Goulson D, Stout JC, Kells AR, Do alien bumblebees compete with native flower-visiting insects in Tasmania?, Journal of Insect Conservation , 6, (3), 2002, p179 - 189 Journal Article, 2002 DOI URL

Goulson D, Hughes WO, Derwent LC, Stout JC , Colony growth of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, in improved and conventional agricultural and suburban habitats, Oecologia, 130, (2), 2002, p267 - 273 Journal Article, 2002 DOI URL

Stout JC, Kells AR, Goulson D, Pollination of the invasive exotic shrub Lupinus arboreus (Fabaceae) by introduced bees in Tasmania, Biological Conservation , 106, (3), 2002, p425 - 434 Journal Article, 2002 DOI URL

Stout JC, Goulson D, The influence of nectar secretion rates on the responses of bumblebees (Bombus spp.) to previously visited flowers, Behavioral Ecology & Sociobiology , 52, (3), 2002, p239 - 246 Journal Article, 2002 URL DOI

Goulson D, Stout JC , Homing ability of the bumblebee, Bombus terrestris, Apidologie , 32, 2001, p105 - 111 Journal Article, 2001 URL TARA - Full Text DOI

Stout JC, Goulson D, The use of conspecific and interspecific scent marks by foraging bumblebees and honeybees, Animal Behaviour , 62, (1), 2001, p183 - 189 Journal Article, 2001 URL DOI

Stout JC, Goulson D, Bumblebees in Tasmania: their distribution and potential impact on Australian flora and fauna, Bee World , 81, 2000, p80 - 86 Journal Article, 2000

Stout JC, Allen JA, Goulson D, Nectar robbing, forager efficiency and seed set: bumblebees foraging on the self-incompatible plant Linaria vulgaris (Scrophulariaceae), Acta Oecologica , 21, (4-5), 2000, p277 - 283 Journal Article, 2000 DOI URL

Stout, Jane C, Does size matter? Bumblebee behaviour and the pollination of Cytisus scoparius L. (Fabaceae), Apidologie, 31, (1), 2000, p129-139 Journal Article, 2000 TARA - Full Text

Goulson D, Stout JC, Langley JG, Hughes WOH, The identity and function of scent marks deposited by foraging bumblebees, Journal of Chemical Ecology , 26, (12), 2000, p2897 - 2911 Journal Article, 2000 URL DOI

Stout JC, Allen JA, Goulson D, The influence of relative plant density and floral morphological complexity on the behaviour of bumblebees, Oecologia , 117, (4), 1998, p543 - 550 Journal Article, 1998 URL DOI

Goulson D, Stout JC, Hawson SA, Allen JA , Floral display size in comfrey, Symphytum officinale L. (Boraginaceae): relationships with visitation by three bumblebee species and subsequent seed set. , Oecologia , 113, (4), 1998, p502 - 508 Journal Article, 1998 DOI URL

Goulson D, Hawson SA, Stout JC, Foraging bumblebees avoid flowers already visited by conspecifics or by other bumblebee species, Animal Behaviour , 55, (1), 1998, p199 - 206 Journal Article, 1998 DOI URL

Stout JC, Goulson D, Allen JA , Repellent scent-marking of flowers by a guild of foraging bumblebees (Bombus spp.). , Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology , 43, (4-5), 1998, p317 - 326 Journal Article, 1998 DOI URL

Goulson D, Stout JC, Hawson SA, Can flower constancy in nectaring butterflies be explained by Darwin's interference hypothesis?, Oecologia , 112, (2), 1997, p225 - 23 Journal Article, 1997 DOI URL

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

EFSA , Towards holistic approaches to the risk assessment of multiple stressors in bees. EFSA Scientific Colloquium Summary Report 18, European Food Safety Authority, November, 2013 Report, 2013

Stout JC, Bourke D, Callier M, Carnus T, Crowe TP, Dauber D, Dolan D, Emmerson M,A Green D, Jones MB, Kochmann J, Mina-Vargas A, O'Rourke E, Sharkey N, Spillane C, Stanley D, Thompson R, Tuteja R, Whelan P, Zimmermann J, SIMBIOSYS: Sectoral Impacts on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services Synthesis Report, Johnstown Castle, Co.Wexford, Ireland, Environmental Protection Agency, 2013 Report, 2013

Research Expertise

Description

I am an ecologist and much of my research uses plant-pollinator interactions as a model system for investigating anthropogenic impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem services. I have particular interests in rare native and invasive alien species, in both managed and unmanaged landscapes. I employ field-based experimental studies combined with laboratory analyses to characterise insect behaviour, plant breeding systems, biodiversity and conservation of pollinators and their impacts on plant population dynamics.

Projects

  • Title
    • Effects of fertilisation on the structure of mutualistic plant-pollinator communities
  • Summary
    • Humans rely on services provided by natural ecosystems, including pollination of agricultural crops by wild and native pollinators. Understanding how to support and protect these services is critical to a sustainable future. This project will enable evidence-based predictions of the impact of fertilizer use on pollination service delivery. Much work has been done on the implications of pesticide use for pollinator health, but the role of fertilisers in agroecosystems is understudied. Yet, given the volume of fertilizer runoff, impacts on primary plant productivity and floral resource availability, may have cascading impacts on plant-pollinator interactions. Our research seeks to fill this gap in understanding by quantifying community level impacts of fertiliser use with ecological network theory and theoretical simulations of plant-pollinator interactions. Further, we will quantify the quality of resources provided by plants in terms of their pollen and nectar, and the quality of the pollination services provided by insects by looking at plant fitness.
  • Funding Agency
    • EU MSC
  • Date From
    • 06.03.17
  • Date To
    • 05.03.19
  • Title
    • Urban bees
  • Summary
    • Urban bees: pollen collection in relation to resource availability and landscape structure - This project will seek to identify where and upon what urban bees are foraging in Dublin, Republic of Ireland. Existing data will be used to characterise urban landscapes and resource availability for bees. We will collect pollen from three groups of bees: Honeybees (Apis mellifera), bumblebees (Bombus spp.), and solitary/semi-social bees. The diversity of pollen collected by bees will be related to urban landscape character and resource availability. We will also use mark-release-recapture experiments to analyse foraging patterns to identify differences in behaviour between common and rare bee species. The results will feed into the All Ireland Pollinator Plan Guide for Local Councils, allowing appropriate steps to be taken to improve urban bee diversity.
  • Funding Agency
    • Eva Crane Trust
  • Date From
    • 02.02.17
  • Date To
    • 31.08.17
  • Title
    • POLLIVAL: assessing market and non-market values of pollination services in Ireland
  • Summary
    • Assessing and evaluating natural capital and ecosystem services which flow from it are key national environmental research priorities (for various organisations including the EPA, National Biodiversity Plan, Irish Forum on Natural Capital, All-Ireland Pollinator Plan), enabling integration of natural capital into decision-making processes and the sustainable use of natural resources. This project will provide a comprehensive evaluation and assessment of the market value of pollination services in Ireland using best-practice methods. Data gaps in terms of pollination dependency of Irish crops will be identified and filled. In addition, the project will deliver a method for assessing non-market values of pollination services, including supporting, regulating and cultural services. Finally, by investigating future drivers of change, including climate, policy and consumer behaviour using horizon scanning and scenario modelling, we can predict how values may change. By understanding and communicating the total value of key ecosystem services, such as pollination, we can develop a better appreciation of natural capital for policy and planning decisions at many levels and in several sectors. The POLLIVAL project will develop national capacity in evaluation of ecosystem services using pollination as a case study. By integrating market and non-market values, assessing current status and identifying drivers of future change, the project will develop a model system to enable evaluation of other forms of natural capital for decision-making and planning processes. The objectives of the project are: 1. To identify best practice to evaluate the current market values of pollination services in Ireland 2. To develop methods to assess non-market values 3. To integrate the implications of land use change (driven by various processes including environmental change, policy change and consumer behaviour) on the value of pollination services in Ireland The project will integrate approaches from natural, social and economic sciences and will involve consultation with experts and integration of expert knowledge, data-gathering (from a range of sources, including collection of novel ecological data sets), development of methods, and modelling of future scenarios.
  • Funding Agency
    • EPA
  • Date From
    • 01.12.16
  • Date To
    • 30.11.18
  • Title
    • Farming and Natural Resources: Measures for Ecological Sustainability
  • Summary
    • Biodiversity has undergone significant declines throughout Ireland and Europe in recent decades. The trend is particularly apparent in agricultural ecosystems, where changes in farming practices (e.g. intensification, specialisation, abandonment) have led to a decrease in habitats and species dependent on agricultural practices. Conservation of natural resources (including biodiversity) and halting the degradation of ecosystem services are key environmental objectives of the European Union. Significant resources are allocated to these objectives in the Common Agricultural Policy (e.g. 'Greening'; Agri-environment schemes) However, deficiencies in relation to the design, targeting, monitoring, evaluation and flexibility of measures and schemes have resulted in their effectiveness being questioned (Kleijn & Sutherland, 2003; Finn & Ó hUallacháin, 2012). This poses a significant challenge to develop measures with a strong evidence base to support their environmental effectiveness, and cost-efficiency. This project, in close consultation with key stakeholders, will identify and outline the evidence base for novel, cost-effective measures to protect and enhance farmland biodiversity. These measures will increase habitat quantity, enhance habitat quality and improve ecological connectivity, from farm to landscape scale. Measures will thus help halt biodiversity loss and enhance the provision of above and below ground ecosystem services, thus supporting agriculture and local communities. The project will build on international research to identify new agri-environment measures appropriate to Irish conditions. Cost-benefit analysis of selected measures will identify those most suitable for inclusion in future iterations of agri-environment policy (e.g. GLAS, Ecological Focus Areas). The farm and landscape scale research in this study will address gaps in knowledge related to the importance of habitat quality and ecological connectivity in halting biodiversity loss and enhancing the provision of ecosystem services. Additionally, the spatial extent of benefits will be determined using spatial modelling. The results will feed back into cost-benefit models to help stakeholders assess the ecosystem services associated with farm habitats. This approach will facilitate the identification of measures and practices required to enhance habitat quantity, quality, connectivity and the provision of ecosystem services. The project will provide stakeholders with the necessary evidence base for novel measures and practices to effectively protect and enhance biodiversity and associated ecosystem services. Addressing these challenges will help the agri-food sector achieve its objectives in relation to the development of economically and environmentally sustainable food production systems.
  • Funding Agency
    • DAFM
  • Date From
    • 01.11.16
  • Date To
    • 31.10.20
  • Title
    • Building resilient landscapes and livelihoods in Burkina Faso's shea parklands.
  • Summary
    • Shea trees provide vital food and income for 80m people throughout the Sudano-Sahel region of Africa. However, unsustainable shea parkland management has reduced tree, pollinator and bird diversity, threatening long-term livelihoods. The project, coordinated by BirdLife, in partnership with RSPB, Naturama, Vogelbescherming Nederland (VBN), Global Shea Alliance and the University of Ouagadougou, will research and pilot best management practices for optimum pollination, and inform sustainable shea production in Burkina Faso and beyond.
  • Funding Agency
    • DEFRA
  • Date From
    • 01.04.16
  • Date To
    • 31.03.19
  • Title
    • Enhancing natural capital for ecosystem service provision
  • Summary
    • Natural capital and the ecosystem services that flow from it are essential for human livelihoods, health and well-being. Our food supply depends on healthy functioning agricultural ecosystems. Insect pollinators and pest-control agents provide key ecosystem services in these systems. It is crucial we understand interactions between agricultural management and insect populations to optimize benefits and minimize conflicts. Agricultural practices at the local (e.g. the use of pesticides) and landscape (e.g. habitat fragmentation) scales can damage insect populations, but can be mitigated by regulating pesticide use and introducing flower strips into cropped landscapes. While such practices can benefit insect populations, further research is needed on whether flower strip habitats near crops are safe for insects, and ensure they are not being affected by pesticide residues. This project will take a novel approach to test whether flower strips enhance pollinator and natural enemy activity and insect exposure to agrochemicals. Hoverflies will be used as model species as they are attracted to flower strips and can enhance pest control and pollination in crops, but can be adversely affected by agrochemicals. Using two test model species of hoverfly (Episyrphus balteatus and Eristalis tenax, both pollinators, the former with predatory larvae that act as pest-control agents) we will also investigate how chemical exposure affects adult behaviour and mortality. We hypothesise that flower strips will enhance the activity of hoverflies and improve pollination and pest control services, but this benefit will be mediated by exposure to agrichemicals. Previous research on flower strips and agrichemicals has focussed on bees, but hoverflies are also important crop pollinators, and their larvae perform additional ecosystem services, thus understanding hoverflies is both necessary and novel. The results of this study can be used to alter and encourage pesticide policies and the management, protection and restoration of ecosystem service providers on farmland.
  • Funding Agency
    • IRC
  • Date From
    • 01.09.16
  • Date To
    • 31.08.20
  • Title
    • Birds, Bees and Butter
  • Summary
    • This project will determine the relationships between tree, bird and pollinator diversity, to enable management for sustainable production of shea fruits, and to help conserve the mixed agroforestry parkland systems of the Sudano zone in sub-Saharan Africa. The long-term goal is more resilient rural livelihoods and restoration and conservation of habitat for migratory birds, honeybees and other pollinating insects and wider biodiversity.
  • Funding Agency
    • LUSH
  • Date From
    • Jun 2015
  • Date To
    • Jun 2016
  • Title
    • Interactions between hydrology and ecology of dune slack ecosystems
  • Summary
    • Dune slacks are freshwater wetlands found between dry, fixed dune ridges in sand dune systems. The groundwater table is close to the surface and flooding typically occurs in winter. Because of their soil moisture content and plant communities, dune slacks increase the habitat and species diversity of sand dune systems where they occur. Their conservation value has been recognised under the EU Habitats Directive (Council Directive 92/43/EEC), where dune slacks are listed as an Annex I habitat. The most recent monitoring round for Annex I habitats in Europe identified pollution and abstraction of groundwater as major threats to the conservation status of dune slacks. Currently, the conservation status of dune slacks is assessed primarily on the floristic characteristics and vegetation structure of the habitat. Invertebrates fulfil a key role in ecosystem function of natural and agricultural landscapes, facilitating pollination and nutrient cycling among other functions. Sensitivity of aquatic macro-invertebrates to water quality has been utilised in freshwater monitoring methodologies such as Q-value assessment. The effects of changing water levels and water quality on flora of dune slacks has been studied elsewhere, but the invertebrate communities of dune slacks are poorly understood in comparison, particularly in Ireland. This project seeks to establish what resources dune slacks provide for invertebrates in sand dune systems and whether they support specific assemblages of plants and invertebrates which are indicative of habitat quality. The effects of human interference with groundwater in sand dune systems will also be investigated.
  • Funding Agency
    • TCD
  • Date From
    • 01.09.13
  • Date To
    • 31.08.16
  • Title
    • Effects of scale and landscape structure on pollinator diversity and the provision of ecosystem services in agricultural landscapes
  • Summary
    • Pollinating insects are important in agricultural and natural landscapes to ensure seed production in crop and wild plant species. However, pollinators are becoming more scarce in farmland and semi-natural areas and require conservation in order to continue delivering this pollination service. Since pollinating insects are very mobile and are influenced by the availability of flowers and nest sites over a scale of several kilometres, it is important that conservation is implemented at the appropriate scale. This project will investigate how different pollinating insects (bees, hoverflies, butterflies) are affected by agricultural habitats at the field scale (which crop is being grown), at the local scale (the diversity of crop and non-crop habitats surrounding agricultural fields) and the regional scale (the type and intensity of farming in region). At the same time, we will investigate how this affects pollination of different types of plants. This project will allow us to determine conservation measures for different pollinating insects and to recommend strategies to promote pollination of both crop and wild plants in agricultural landscapes.
  • Funding Agency
    • IRC
  • Date From
    • Sep 2012
  • Date To
    • Aug 2015
  • Title
    • Toxic nectar and pollen: impacts on flower-visiting mutualists and antagonists and role in invasion success
  • Summary
    • Despite the ecological and medical importance of secondary plant compounds, their role in biological invasion and impacts on native species are poorly understood. Using field surveys, laboratory bioassays and chemical analyses, we will ascertain the impacts of toxins in nectar (and pollen) on plant mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (nectar robbers), determine how local selection pressures affect the expression of toxic compounds and elucidate how toxins influence invasion by non-native species. By determining impacts of non-native toxic nectar on key ecosystem service providers, results will contribute to sustainable management of pollinators and invasive species.
  • Funding Agency
    • IRCSET
  • Date From
    • Sept 2010
  • Date To
    • Sept 2014
  • Title
    • Impacts of Legume cropping on biodiversity
  • Summary
    • Legumes Futures is an EU project (full title: Legume-supported cropping systems for Europe), coordinated by The Scottish Agricultural College, involving 18 partner institutions. The project will deliver knowledge and technology for the optimisation of legumes in European agricultural systems and promote the partnerships needed to support the public policy outcomes sought. Our task is to carry out an assessment of the influence of legume crops on plant and soil biodiversity in cropping systems across Atlantic, Central Europe and Scandinavian Climate zones. We will assess higher plant biodiversity, earthworm biodiversity and within-soil biological activity.
  • Funding Agency
    • EU FP7
  • Date From
    • Sept 2010
  • Date To
    • Sept 2013
  • Title
    • Plant-pollinator ecology in dune ecosystems
  • Summary
    • Coastal sand dunes are diverse habitats both in terms of physical structure and community richness and are protected under the EU Habitats Directive. Despite being recognised as providing a range of physical ecosystem services (eg rainwater and/or groundwater filtration, protection from storm damage, sediment stores etc), their value in providing biological services, such as pollination, has not been well explored. Dunes provide excellent habitats for a wide range of plants and invertebrates, particularly warmth-loving specie that need a degree of openness of habitat as part of their life-history requirements, and represent a refugia for rarer species. This project will assess how the size, management and surrounding land use of coastal sand dunes affects plant and insect communities, insect-flower interaction networks, and pollination services. We are working in collaboration with Dr Una Fitzpatrick at the National Biodiversity Data Centre.
  • Funding Agency
    • TCD Studentship
  • Date From
    • Oct 2010
  • Date To
    • Sept 2013
  • Title
    • Parallel declines in pollinators and animal-pollinated plants
  • Summary
    • It has long been recognized that plant and pollinator decline are inextricably linked and recent work has demonstrated parallel declines using historical data. What is still lacking, however, is a demonstration of the causal link, if any, and its direction between plant and pollinator decline. In this project we will determine the direction of causality using modeling and empirical approaches. If causality can be demonstrated, this will further justify development of priorities to halt pollinator decline.
  • Funding Agency
    • IRCSET
  • Date From
    • 01.10.09
  • Date To
    • 30.09.12
  • Title
    • Sectoral IMpacts on BIOdiversity and ecoSYStem services (SIMBIOSYS)
  • Summary
    • Biodiversity and associated ecosystem services are fundamental to humanity but are threatened by human activity in a range of sectors. This €1.6M project involving researchers at TCD, UCD and UCC will quantify impacts of key sectoral activities (in particular: cultivation of bioenergy crops, road landscaping and aquaculture) on genetic, species and landscape biodiversity and the ecosystem services they provide, including pollination, biological pest control, carbon sequestration and resistance to alien species invasion. In addition, we will test methods for mitigating impacts, carry out in-depth strategic reviews in order to inform national policy decisions, and make recommendations for future strategic research and management.
  • Funding Agency
    • EPA
  • Date From
    • 02.04.08
  • Date To
    • 30.09.12
  • Title
    • Precision pasture management: impacts on weeds and implications for biodiversity
  • Summary
    • Grassland renovation is the basis for the generation of improved grassland for Irish livestock farmers. To date the extent of reseeding within region, farm enterprise or stocking rate is unknown. However in the future it's likely that grazed grass will play a pivotal role in underpinning the profitability of livestock enterprises. This project will provide excellent guideline data on the impacts of weed control with plant ID technology in both high/low input and organic grassland systems by quantifying the extent of reseeding, methods used, input usage and success on grassland farms. Experiments will be undertaken to investigate the effects of using automated systems to recognise specific weeds and spot-apply herbicide, such methods will be compared against blanket application techniques and manual spot spraying (as used in low N systems). The impact of plant machine technology to identify weeds and weed grasses to spray will also be tested in a minimal cultivation reseeding experiment against sward renovation controls. With minimal herbicide application technologies major additional benefits are anticipated for biodiversity: a large reduction in herbicide damage to non-target species through the much greater precision in herbicide application and the elimination in spray drifting.
  • Funding Agency
    • Department of Agriculture and Food
  • Date From
    • 01.01.08
  • Date To
    • 31.12.10
  • Title
    • The distribution and ecology of the mountain bumblebee, Bombus monticola
  • Summary
    • Bumblebees are ecologically and economically important components of Ireland's natural heritage. Of our 18 native Irish species, 10 are likely to qualify for IUCN threatened status. Bombus monticola (Smith) was first discovered in Ireland in 1974. This species is generally confined to mountains and moorlands, and is only found in the Wicklow mountains in the Republic of Ireland. We know very little about the local distribution and ecology of B. monticola in Ireland. As part of a generally declining bumblebee fauna, and a specialist of heathland plants, this species represents an important element of Irish biodiversity. Since the global distribution of B. monticola is restricted to the British Isles and Fenno-Scandinavia, Irish populations are globally important. Consequently, we need to know much more about its distribution, foraging ecology, population phenology (life cycle through the year) and nesting requirements in Ireland. This will allow us to make predictions about the future spread of this species and its potential interactions with other bumblebee species.
  • Funding Agency
    • Heritage Council
  • Date From
    • March 2006
  • Date To
    • November 2006
  • Title
    • Predicting plant invasion - which taxa are the future invasive aliens?
  • Summary
    • Globally, alien plant invasions have severe impacts on biodiversity at all levels. Often invading alien plants are only recognised as such once they have become established and are already very difficult to eradicate. Although it is notoriously difficult to predict which taxa will become invasive in the future, one of the targets of the National Plant Conservation Strategy for Ireland is to develop and implement mechanisms for early detection and rapid action against potentially new invasive species. This is particularly important in Ireland as approximately half of Ireland's flora is recorded as non-native. This project will focus on established non-native terrestrial and aquatic plant species in Ireland. We will create a database of alien plants and their biological characteristics, and attempt to identify potential future invasives.
  • Funding Agency
    • EPA
  • Date From
    • Apr 2006
  • Date To
    • Jul 2007
  • Title
    • Habitat mosaics and biodiversity at the landscape scale
  • Summary
    • This project will determine insect assemblages across habitats in the landscape mosaic (focusing on bumble bees, butterflies, ladybirds and ants), determine the potential resource value of each habitat to specific taxa, determine if rare and common species interact with the habitat mosaic in the same, or context-specific ways, and develop a model of how habitats interact, and thus predict how individual management decisions will affect landscape-scale biodiversity.
  • Funding Agency
    • EPA
  • Date From
    • Oct06
  • Date To
    • Oct09
  • Title
    • What are the impacts of alien plants on native pollinators?
  • Summary
    • Pollinators provide essential ecosystem services and may be directly affected by alien plants. Bumblebees are important generalist pollinators which have declined during the last century, partly as a result of a reduction in wildflower forage resources. This project will investigate whether invasion by rewarding alien plants has beneficial impacts on native bumblebees by providing an alternative forage resource; or negative effects, both directly by providing low quantity and quality rewards, or indirectly by reducing rewarding native forage resources. By manipulating numbers of alien plants, this project will assess the impacts of management of invasive alien plants on native bumblebee species.
  • Funding Agency
    • Environmental Protection Agency
  • Date From
    • Oct 05
  • Date To
    • Sept 08
  • Title
    • Impacts of exotic plants on native plant-pollinator mutualisms
  • Summary
    • Exotic species that become naturalised in native ecosystems can have a wide range of impacts and disrupt key ecosystem processes. Since many exotic plants require animals to transfer pollen between flowers, they have the potential to disrupt native plant-pollinator interactions. This potential has largely been overlooked in previous studies. Using a combination of field and laboratory techniques, this project will make a comprehensive study of the potential direct and indirect impacts of a model species (Rhododendron ponticum) on native plants and pollinators in Ireland. Findings will contribute to general understanding of impacts of invasive species on native and agricultural ecosystems.
  • Funding Agency
    • Science Foundation Ireland
  • Date From
    • Oct04
  • Date To
    • Oct07
  • Title
    • Reproductive biology and conservation of rare Irish Orchids
  • Summary
    • Several species of orchid are extremely rare in the Republic of Ireland. Rarity can have severe impacts on plant population viability and recruitment and knowledge of a rare plant's reproductive biology is essential for its conservation. Many orchids rely on animal pollinators to transfer pollen between individuals to facilitate the production of seeds. However, interactions with pollinators are affected by rarity, and a negative feedback may exist whereby rare plants fail to attract sufficient pollinators which results in reduced seed production, which increases rarity. This project will determine whether limitation in pollination is reducing seed production in four rare orchid species in Ireland and suggest mechanisms for managing not only orchids, but also their pollinators. In addition, detailed ecological examination of sites where these orchid species are found will contribute to monitoring programmes of rare plant species.
  • Funding Agency
    • National Parks and Wildlife Service
  • Date From
    • Jun04
  • Date To
    • Jun07
  • Title
    • Urban versus agricultural environments: bumble bee species diversity and abundance in Ireland
  • Summary
    • Bumble bees are ecologically and economically important pollinators and a charismatic component of Ireland's native biodiversity. Natural populations of bumble bees have declined in Northern Europe in the last fifty years, largely because of changes in farming practices. Using Malaise Traps, we surveyed bumblebees in urban and agricultural areas. Urban areas hosted a more species-rich bumble bee assemblage, but there was no overall difference in diversity between urban and agricultural areas. Urban areas also supported larger bumblebee populations, although the statistical significance of this difference varied across the year. Bumblebee abundance peaked two weeks earlier in urban sites, but due to the lack of queens and males caught in agricultural sites, it is impossible to make more detailed statements about differences in phenology. Malaise traps proved to be good samplers of the bumble bee assemblage, but modifications to avoid by-catch problems are suggested. Overall, this work does suggest that urban areas have an important role to play as reservoirs for bumble bee populations.
  • Funding Agency
    • Heritage
  • Date From
    • Mar03
  • Date To
    • Nov03
  • Title
    • Invasive weeds: the role of pollination mutualisms in population expansion
  • Summary
    • I investigated mutualistic interactions between invasive plants and native pollinators, using invasive Rhododendron ponticum as a model. I found that R. ponticum has a generalised pollination system, both in its native and its exotic ranges, but that fruit production may be pollinator limited. Field observations have indicated infrequent long-distance pollen transfer and I am using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite molecular markers quantify levels of gene flow and to characterise patterns of genetic variation within and between populations.
  • Funding Agency
    • Enterprise Ireland
  • Date From
    • Dec01
  • Date To
    • Aug03
  • Title
    • The role of repellent scent marking in efficient foraging by bees
  • Summary
    • We showed that the duration of the repellent effect corresponded to nectar secretion rates, evidence for inter-generic interpretation of scent marks and that bees behaved according to predictions made from an ESS model.
  • Funding Agency
    • Natural Environmental Research Council (NERC)
  • Date From
    • Aug99
  • Date To
    • Mar00
  • Title
    • Toxic nectar and pollne: impacts on flower-visiting mutualists and antagonists and role in invasion succes
  • Summary
    • This project will examine the effects of toxic nectar from invasive Rhododendron on native insects and determine why toxic nectar is produced - is it to deter flower visitors that do not pollinate? Also, we will investigate which Rhododendron species have toxic nectar and how poisonous it is. Findings will be crucial for informing conservation management of declining pollinators and invading non-native plants. Rhododendron ponticum, an invasive species in Ireland, produces toxic nectar and pollen which appears to have little impact on the survival of bumblebees, the main pollinators in Ireland. In fact, R. ponticum may act as an important floral resource for these bees. However, other bees (e.g. honeybees) avoid Rhododendron flowers, presumably because they cannot tolerate the toxins. This 4-year project is an interdisciplinary collaboration, bringing together Dr Stout and Dr Geraldine Wright (Newcastle), Dr Phil Stevenson (Kew/Greenwich) and Dr Mark Brown (Royal Holloway, London). The team will assess the impacts of floral toxins on plant mutualists (pollinators) and antagonists (nectar thieves - insects which visit flowers in order to collect nectar, but who do not transfer pollen and act as pollinators) and explore the extent to which toxic nectar plays a role in invasion by non-native species.
  • Funding Agency
    • Science Foundation Ireland
  • Date From
    • 01.09.10
  • Date To
    • 31.08.14

Keywords

Bees; Behavioural and evolutionary ecology; Biodiversity; Biodiversity and Conservation; Biological Invasion; Ecology; Entomology; Environmental biology; Insects; Invasive Alien Species; Land Use Planning/Policy; natural capital; Pollination; Pollinators; Sustainable Agriculture; Weeds

Recognition

Representations

Associated Partner in EU integrated project on Assessing LArge scale Risks for biodiversity with tested Methods (ALARM) 2005-2009

Member, National Platform for Biodiversity Research, Ireland 2005-present

Consultant, Bee conservation workshop - creating red data list for Irish bees, Trinity College Dublin Sept 2005

Co-organiser of International Union for the Study of Social Insects (British Section) Meeting, Trinity College Dublin Dec 2003

Co-organiser of Irish Plant Scientists' Association Meeting, Trinity College Dublin March 2003 & March 2009

Management Committee COST Action Super-B 2014

Trustee, Bumblebee Conservation Trust 2013- present

Awards and Honours

Fellowship of Trinity College Dublin 2011

Fellow of the Royal Entomological Society 2015

Memberships

International Union for the Study of Social Insects (British Section) 1998 – 2003

British Ecological Society 1996 – present

International Bee Research Association 1998 – 2005

Ecological Society of America 2014


Last updated 8 June 2015 by biodiversity@tcd.ie.