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Nicholas Gray
Professor in Environmental Sciences, Botany
Professor in Environmental Sciences, Civil Struct & Env. Eng.
Professor in Environmental Sciences, Trinity Centre for the Environment

Biography

Professor Nick Gray has worked primarily in the area of biological wastewater treatment for thirty years, working mainly on full-scale treatment systems both here and abroad. The prime focus of his work is the design and operation of reactor processes. The work has been published in over 150 scientific publications and in a number of research monographs. For example 'The Biology of Wastewater Treatment' (1989) and 'Activated Sludge: Theory and Practice' (1990) both published by Oxford University Press, contain significant amounts of previously unpublished work including a new operational control alogrithm containing 164 steps in the latter. 'Biology of Wastewater Treatment' became hugely popular in spite of its size (829 pages) and was revised in 1992. A new edition, published by Imperial College Press in London in 2004, expanded the original text to 1420 pages, 'a remarkable undertaking for a single author' Nature. Work on river pollution control has always run in parallel to the his work on wastewater treatment. In the 1980's organic pollution and sewage fungus growths in rivers was a major problem in Ireland. Fundamental work by Professor Gray led to a greater understanding of the formation and control of such microbial communities leading to collaborations with workers as far away as New Zealand. The work, carried out over a five-year period, was brought together in Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society in 1985. His work for the Standing Committee of Analysts (UK) focussed on water quality assessment leading to new standard methods and contributions to new European standards and legislation. This has also included contributions on microbial and chemical water quality testing and assessment. A third Biological Review (1995) dealt with treatability, toxicity and biodegradability test methods. Since 1994 work has focussed on unravelling the problems caused by the abandoned pyrite and copper mines at Avoca in County Wicklow, which has destroyed the River Avoca through the discharge of acid mine drainage. Through a series of papers and refereed reports the Avoca site has become and important benchmark site and is visited by other workers in this field from throughout the world. During the 1990's he produced a number of new texts including the popular book 'Drinking water quality: problems and solutions' published by John Wiley and Sons in 1994 and translated into Spanish in 1996. This book was expanded and updated in 2008 and published by Cambridge University Press. 'The Coliform index and waterborne disease: problems of microbial drinking water assessment' written with Clara Gleeson published by E. & F.N. Spon, London in 1997 proved highly controversial at the time and heralded subsequent changes in testing protocols. He is also author of the textbook 'Water Technology' (1999) co-published by Arnold and Wiley. Butterworth-Heinemann published a revised version in 2002 with an expanded second edition published in 2005 by Elsevier. This new edition will also be released in Russian in 2009. An expanded third edition is due in 2010. With a strong commitment to both research and training he started a research group in 1982 Water Technology Research. Under this umbrella training workshops were held both in Ireland and Italy. It also fronted an active consultancy service that underpinned his research throughout the 1980's and to the mid 1990's. His current interests focus on the microbial reactions in activated sludge with an increasing proportion of his time spent on looking at ways in which society will cope with a post climate change environment.

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

Nicholas Frederick Gray, Water Science and Technology: An Introduction, 4, Oxford, CRC Press, 2017, 680pp Book, 2017

Chapter 17. Capillary Suction Time (CST). in, editor(s)Steve Tarleton , Filtration and Separation, Oxford, Academic Press, 2015, pp659 - 670, [Gray, N.F.] Book Chapter, 2015

Gray, N.F., Drinking Water Quality: Problems and Solutions, Turkey, Nobel Akademik Yayincilik , 2015, 1 - 725pp Book, 2015

Gray, N.F. and Coady, J., Evaluation of full scale vertical peat biofilters for treatment of septic tank effluents, International Journal of Environmental Studies , 72, (1), 2015, p154 - 165 Journal Article, 2015 DOI

Gray, N.F., Facing up to Global Warming: What is Going on and How You can Make a Difference?, New York, Springer, 2015, 1 - 406pp Book, 2015

32. Chlorine dioxide in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Risk, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp591 - 598, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

Fryer, M. and Gray, N.F., New study aims to develop a knowledge-based risk assessment model to predict risk and severity of activated sludge foaming., EverythingAboutWater (India), 2014 Journal Article, 2014

36. The implications of global warming and climate change on waterborne diseases in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Risk, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp653 - 666, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

35. Filtration methods in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Risk, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp631 - 652, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

31. Free and combined chlorine in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Risk, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp571 - 590, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

Percival, S.L., Yates, M.V., Williams, D.W., Chalmers, R.M. and Gray,N.F. , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbial Aspects and Risks. , London, Academic Press, 2014, 1 - 695pp Book, 2014

33. Ozone disinfection in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Ris, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp599 - 616, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

34. Ultraviolet disinfection in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , In Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Risk, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp617 - 630, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

30. Pathogen control in drinking water in, editor(s)S.L.Percival, M.V. Yates, D.W. Williams, R.M. Chalmers and N.F. Gray , Microbiology of Waterborne Diseases: Microbiological Aspects and Risk, London, Academic Press, 2014, pp537 - 570, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 2014

O'Flaherty, E. and Gray, N.F. , A comparative analysis of the characteristics of a range of real and synthetic wastewaters, Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 20, (12), 2013, p8813 - 8830 Journal Article, 2013

Brady, J. and Gray, N. F. , Analysis of water pricing in Ireland and recommendations towards a more efficient water sector, Water Policy , 15, 2013, p435 - 457 Journal Article, 2013

Hughes T.A., Gray, N.F. and Sánchez Guillamón, O., Removal of metals and acidity from acid mine drainage using liquid and dried digested sewage sludge and cattle slurry. , Mine Water and Environment , 32, (2), 2013, p108 - 120 Journal Article, 2013

Hughes T.A. and Gray, N.F. , Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater: Performance evaluation. , Environmental Science and Pollution Research , 20, (11), 2013, p7863 - 7877 Journal Article, 2013

Hughes T.A. and Gray, N.F. , Removal of metals and acidity from acid mine drainage using municipal wastewater and activated sludge. , Mine Water and Environment , 32, (3), 2013, p170 - 184 Journal Article, 2013

Drinking Water and Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 8-9, (2012), Gray, N.F., [ed.] Journal, 2012 URL

Fryer, M. and Gray, N.F. , Foaming Scum Index (FSI) - A new tool for the assessment and characterisation of biological mediated activated sludge foams, Journal of Environmental Management , 110, 2012, p8 - 19 Journal Article, 2012

Strosnider, W.H.J., Hughes, T.A., Peer, R.A.M., Winfrey, B.K., Gray, N.F. and Nairn, R.W. , Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater., Reclamation Matters, American Society of Mining and Reclamation, 2012, (3), 2012, p26 - 29 Journal Article, 2012

Hughes, T.A. and Gray, N.F. , Acute and Chronic Toxicity of Acid Mine Drainage to the Activated Sludge Process, Mine Water and the Environment, 31, 2012, p40 - 52 Journal Article, 2012

Fryer M., O'Flaherty E. and Gray N.F. , Evaluating the Measurement of Activated Sludge Foam Potential. , Water, 3, (1), 2011, p424 - 444 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text URL DOI

Dubber, D. and Gray, N.F. , The effect of fundamental design parameters on ciliates community structure in Irish activated sludge systems., European Journal of Protistology, 47, 2011, p274 - 286 Journal Article, 2011

Dubber, D., Gray, N.F., The effect of anoxia and anaerobia on ciliate community in biological nutrient removal systems using laboratory-scale sequencing batch reactors (SBRs), Water Research, 45, (6), 2011, p2213 - 2226 Journal Article, 2011 TARA - Full Text

Hughes, T.A. and Gray, N.F. , Co-treatment of acid mine drainage with municipal wastewater using the activated sludge process: preliminary treatability studies. , Reclamation: Sciences Leading to Success. The 2011 National Meeting of the American Society of Mining and Reclamation, , Bismarck, ND, June 11 - 16, 2011., edited by R.I. Barnhisel , ASMR, Lexington, KY., 2011, pp283 - 305 Conference Paper, 2011

Dubber, D. and Gray, N.F., Replacement of chemical oxygen demand (COD) with total organic carbon (TOC) for monitoring wastewater treatment performance to minimize disposal of toxic analytical waste. , Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part A: Toxic/Hazardous Substances, Environmental Engineering, 45 , (12), 2010, p1595 - 1600 Journal Article, 2010

Effectiveness and sustainability of active and passive systems for the treatment of acid mine drainage and the recovery of metals: A review. in, editor(s)B.C. Robinson , Mine Drainage and Related Problems, New York, Nova Scientific, 2010, pp1 - 69, [ Hughes, T.A. and Gray, N.F. ] Book Chapter, 2010

Gray, N.F., Water Technology: an Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers, 3rd edition, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2010, 1 - 747pp Book, 2010 URL

Brady, J. and Gray, N.F., Group water schemes in Ireland: Their role within the Irish water sector. , European Water, 29, 2010, p39 - 58 Journal Article, 2010 URL

Gray, N.F. and Delaney, E., Measuring community response of bentic macroinvertebrates in an erosional river impacted by acid mine drainage by use of a simple model., Ecological Indicators, 10, (3), 2010, p668 - 675 Journal Article, 2010 DOI

Gray, N.F., Failure of plastic media biofilters due to ponding caused by the fungus Subbaromyces splendens Hesseltine, Water Today, 1, (5), 2010, p86 - 90 Journal Article, 2010

Drinking Water and Health. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 7-8, (2010), 1597-4202; 97-469p, Gray, N.F., [ed.] Journal, 2010 URL

Dubber, D and Gray, N.F., Enumeration of protozoan ciliates in activated sludge: Determination of replicate number using probability, Water Research, 43, (14), 2009, p3443 - 3452 Journal Article, 2009

Hackett, M. and Gray, N.F., Carbon dioxide emission savings potential of household water use reduction in the UK. , Journal of Sustainable Development, 2, (1), 2009, p36 - 43 Journal Article, 2009 URL TARA - Full Text

Gray, N.F., Using charcoal to fix the price of carbon emissions, Sustainability: Science, Practice and Policy, 5, (2), 2009, p1 - 3 Journal Article, 2009

Kenny, T and Gray, N.F., A preliminary survey of household and personal carbon dioxide emissions in Ireland., Environment International, 35, (2), 2009, p259 - 272 Journal Article, 2009 DOI

Kenny, T. and Gray, N.F., Comparative performance of six carbon footprint models for use in Ireland. , Environmental Impact Assessment Review, 29, (1), 2009, p1 - 6 Journal Article, 2009 TARA - Full Text DOI

Gray, N.F. and Delaney, E., Comparison of benthic macroinvertebrate indices for the assessment of the impact of acid mine drainage on an Irish river below an abandoned Cu-S mine, Environmental Pollution, 151, (1), 2008, p31 - 40 Journal Article, 2008 DOI

Gray, N.F., Drinking Water Quality: Problems and Solutions., Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2008, 1 - 570pp Book, 2008

Gray, N.F., Rating water quality: the Australian experience., Engineer's Journal, 61, (4), 2007, p225 - 226 Journal Article, 2007

Gray, N.F., Drinking water quality: perceptions, problems and the future, CD ROM, Water Infrastructure and Engineering Conference 2007, Irish Management Institute, Dublin, June , 2007, pp. 9.1 - 9.25 Conference Paper, 2007

Gray, N.F., Fungus: know the dangers. , Water and Waste Treatment, 49, (12), 2006, p18 - 20 Journal Article, 2006

Gray, N.F. (Editor), Current Environmental Research in Ireland. Journal of Environmental Science and Health Part A, Vol. 41, Issue No. 5, Oxford, Taylor and Francis, 2006, 1 - 256pp Book, 2006

Gray, N.F. 'Forward: Current Environmental Research in Ireland,' , Journal of Environmental Science and Health (Part A), Vol. 41, Issue No. 5, pp. i-iii. , 2006, - Miscellaneous, 2006 DOI

Yau, H. and Gray, N.F., Riverine sediment metal concentrations of the Avoca-Avonmore catchment, south-east Ireland: a base-line assessment , Biology and Environment, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy, 105B, (2), 2005, p95 - 106 Journal Article, 2005 URL

Gray, N.F., Water Science and Technology: an Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers., Second Edition, Oxford, Elsevier, 2005, 1 - 657pp Book, 2005

N.F. Gray and M. Carton-Kenney, A rural housing sustainability index, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Municipal Engineer,, 157, (ME4), 2004, p275 - 283 Journal Article, 2004 DOI

N.F. Gray, Septic tank design and installation: observations and recommendations I. Tank manufacture, number of chambers, scum formation and percolation areas., Geological Survey of Ireland Groundwater Newsletter,, 43, 2004, p9 - 12 Journal Article, 2004

N.F. Gray and R.O. Gray, Litter deposition on minor roads in Ireland: a pilot study, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Municpal Engineer, 157, (ME3), 2004, p185 - 192 Journal Article, 2004 DOI

N.F. Gray, Septic tank design and installation: Observations and recommendations II. Emptying v sludge reduction, maintenance, use and conclusions, Geological Survey of Ireland Groundwater Newsletter,, 43, 2004, p13 - 15 Journal Article, 2004

N.F. Gray, Biology of Wastewater Treatment, Second Edition, London, Imperial College Press, 2004, 1 - 1421pp Book, 2004

A. Gaynor and N.F. Gray, Trends in sediment metal concentrations in the River Avoca, southeast Ireland., Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 26, (3-4), 2004, p411-19- Journal Article, 2004 DOI

N.F. Gray and D. Kelly, Travel patterns at two secondary schools in Ireland., Proceedings of the Insitution of Civil Engineers, Municipal Engineer,, 156, (ME4), 2003, p273 - 280 Journal Article, 2003 DOI

S. O'Hagain and N.F. Gray, Colecott hybrid reed-bed treatment system: design, construction and operation., Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management,, 16, (2), 2002, p90 - 95 Journal Article, 2002 DOI

N.F. Gray, Discussion on the assessment of civil engineering heritage., Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers, Municipal Engineer,, 151, (ME2), 2002, p159 - 160 Journal Article, 2002

N.F. Gray, Water Technology, Revised Edition, New York, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 2002, 1 - 548pp Book, 2002

C. Nic Aonghusa and N.F. Gray, Laundry detergents as a source of heavy metals in Irish domestic wastewater., Journal of Environmental Science and Health: Part A. Toxic/Hazardous Substances and Environmental Engineering,, 37, (1), 2002, p1 - 6 Journal Article, 2002 DOI

N.F. Gray, Water Technology, an Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers, Revised Edition, Oxford, Butterworth-Heinemann, 2002, 1 - 548pp Book, 2002

C. Gleeson and N.F. Gray, The Coliform Index and Waterborne Diseases: Problems of Microbial Drinking Water Assessment., eBook, London, Taylor and Francis Ltd., 2002, 1 - 210pp Book, 2002

N.F. Gray, Getting to grips with sludge, Engineer's Journal, 55, (7), 2001, p25 - 26 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray, Sewage sludge: no heavy metals please., Engineer's Journal, 55, (6), 2001, p21 - 22 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray and O. O'Connell, Nutrient removal from wastewater at source., Geological Survey of Ireland Groundwater Newsletter,, 37, 2001, p9 - 10 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray, Crytosporidiosis: Increasing the pressure on water engineers., Engineer's Journal,, 55, (1), 2001, p50 - 51 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray, A new approach to sludge testing., Engineer's Journal,, 55, (2), 2001, p62 - 63 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray, Radon gas: threat from below., Engineer's Journal,, 55, (6), 2001, p25 - 26 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray, The decline of metal concentrations in Irish sewage sludge., Water and Wastewater Treatment Journal,, 55, (7), 2001, p9 - 10 Journal Article, 2001

N.F. Gray, Metals in Irish sewage sludge on the decline., International Water Association Specialist Group on Sludge Management Newsletter, (October), 2000, p1 - 2 Journal Article, 2000

S. Bernard and N.F. Gray, Aerobic digestion of pharmaceutical and domestic wastewater sludges at ambient temperature, Water Research, 34, (3), 2000, p725 - 734 Journal Article, 2000 DOI

N.F. Gray, Corrosion prevention, Geological Survey of Ireland Groundwater Newsletter, 35, 1999, p13 - 16 Journal Article, 1999

Metal contamination of surface water related to past mining activity in Ireland in, editor(s)R. Ferandez Rubio , Mine, Water and Environment, Sevilla, Spain, International Mine Water Association, 1999, pp535 - 541, [O. Aslibekian, N.F. Gray and R. Moles] Book Chapter, 1999

N.F. Gray, Water Technology, First Edition, New York, John Wiley and Sons Inc., 1999, 1 - 548pp Book, 1999

N.F. Gray, Water Technology: an Introduction for Environmental Scientists and Engineers, First Edition, London, Edward Arnold, 1999, 1 - 548pp Book, 1999

N.F. Gray, Practical assessment techniques for the impact of acid mine drainage on riverine systems, CSIR Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences, 5, (4), 1998, p147 - 161 Journal Article, 1998

C. O'Neill, N.F. Gray and M. Williams, Evaluation of the rehabilittaion procedure of a pyritic mine tailings pond in Avoca, southeast Ireland, Land Degradation and Development, 9, (1), 1998, p67 - 79 Journal Article, 1998 DOI

N.F. Gray, Acid mine drainage composition and the implications for its impact on lotic systems, Water Research, 32, (7), 1998, p2122 - 2134 Journal Article, 1998 DOI

C. Herr and N.F. Gray, Sampling riverine sediments impacted by acid mine drainage: problems and solutions, Environmental Geology, 29, (1-2), 1997, p37 - 45 Journal Article, 1997 DOI

N.F. Gray and C. O'Neill, Acid mine drainage toxicity testing, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 19, (4), 1997, p165 - 171 Journal Article, 1997 DOI

N.F. Gray, Environmental impact and remediation of acid mine drainage: a management problem, Environmental Geology, 30, (1-2), 1997, p62 - 71 Journal Article, 1997 DOI

C. Gleeson and N.F. Gray , The Coliform Index and Waterborne Disease: Problems of Microbial Drinking Water Assessment, First Edition, London, E. & F.N. Spon, 1997, 1 - 210pp Book, 1997

C. Herr and N.F. Gray, Metal contamination of riverine sediments below the Avoca Mines, southeast Ireland, Environmental Geochemistry and Health, 19, (2), 1997, p73 - 82 Journal Article, 1997 DOI

C. Herr and N.F. Gray, Seasonal variation in metal contamination of riverine sediments below a copper and sulphur mine in southeast Ireland., Water Science and Technology, 33, (6), 1996, p255 - 261 Journal Article, 1996 DOI

N.F. Gray, The use of an objective index for the assessment of the contamination of surface and ground waters by acid mine drainage, Journal of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management, 10, (5), 1996, p332 - 340 Journal Article, 1996 DOI

C. Herr, C. O'Neill and N.F. Gray, Metal contamination from aopen cast copper and sulphur mining in southeast Ireland., Land Degradation and Development, 7, (2), 1996, p161 - 174 Journal Article, 1996 DOI

N.F. Gray, Calidad del agua potable: problemas y soluciones, First Edition, Zaragoza, Spain, Editorial Acribia, 1996, 1 - 365pp Book, 1996

N.F. Gray, A substrate classification index for the visual assessment of the impact of acid mine drainage in lotic systems, Water Research, 30, (6), 1996, p1551 - 1554 Journal Article, 1996 DOI

Soil and vegetation contamination from a disused sulphur and copper mine in southeast Ireland in, editor(s)J. Barton, B. Bilitewski, J. Busing, D.V. Jackson, J.Jager, M. Jauzein, P. Krejsa and K.H. Ujma , Recycling Technologies: Treatment of Waste and Contaminated Sites, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1996, pp484 - 492, [N.F. Gray, C. O'Neill and C. Herr] Book Chapter, 1996

Biorehabilitation of acid mine drainage phenomenon by accelerated bioleaching of mine wastes incorporating metal from leachate in, editor(s)J. Barton, B. Bilitewski, J. Busing, D.V. Jackson, J. Jager, M. Jauzein, P. Krejsa and K.H. Ujma , Recycling Technologies: Treatment of Waste and Contaminated Sites, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1996, pp463 - 474, [N.F. Gray and A. Kontopoulos] Book Chapter, 1996

N.F. Gray, Field assessment of acid mine drainage contamination in surface and ground waters, Environmental Geology, 27, (4), 1996, p358 - 361 Journal Article, 1996 DOI

M. Scott and N.F. Gray, Wastewater treatment in unsewered areas of Ireland: a review, Geological Survey of Ireland groundwater Newsletter, 29, 1996, p6 - 7 Journal Article, 1996 URL

Impact assessment of acid mine drainage on lotic systems: a case study in, editor(s)J. Barton, B.Bilitewski, J. Busing, D.V. Jackson, J. Jager, M.Jauzein, P. Krejsa and K.H. Ujma , Recycling Technologies: Treatment of Waste and Contaminated Sites, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1996, pp475 - 483, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 1996

Herr, C. and Gray, N.F. , Environmental impact of acid mine drainage on the Avoca River: Metal fluxes in water and sediment. Part I Introduction to metal accumulation in riverine sediments, Technical Report: 19, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-20-7)., 1995 Report, 1995

Doyle, T.M. and Gray, N.F. , Protocol for monitoring and predicting the impact of acid mine drainage: Designing and setting up a geographical information system (GIS). , Technical Report: 25, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-26-6), 1995 Report, 1995

Gray, N.F. , Flow calculation in the River Avoca: flow calculation and flow data: Revised July, 1995., Technical Report: 10, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-11-8) , 1995 Report, 1995

Wastewater treatment biology, W.A. Nierenberg, Encyclopaedia of Environmental Biology: Volume 3, First Edition, Florida, Academic Press, 1995, pp463 - 478, [N.F. Gray] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 1995

Gray, N.F. , Field assessment of acid mine drainage contamination in surface waters, Technical Report: 14, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-15-0), 1995 Report, 1995

Herr, C. and Gray, N.F. , Seasonal variation of metal contamination in riverine sediments of the Avoca River with regard to seasonal differences. , Technical Report: 34, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-35-5), 1995, 1995 Report, 1995

O'Neill, C., Herr C. and Gray, N.F, A survey of soil and vegetation in the area surrounding the East Avoca Mine, Co. Wicklow., Technical Report: 31, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-32-0), 1995 Report, 1995

Sullivan, M., Gray, N.F. and O'Neill, C. , Synoptic overview of the Avoca-Avonmore catchment and the Avoca Mines., Technical Report: 26, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-27-4), 1995 Report, 1995

Herr, C. and Gray, N.F. , Protocol for monitoring and predicting the impact of acid mine drainage: sediment sampling. , Technical Report: 28, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-29-0), 1995 Report, 1995

C. Byrne and N.F. Gray, Field acute toxicity method for the assessment of acid mine drainage using macro-invertebrates, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 4, 1995, p583 - 588 Journal Article, 1995

Gray, N.F. , A substrate classification index for the visual assessment of the impact of acid mine drainage in lotic systems, Technical Report: 24, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-25-8), 1995 Report, 1995

Herr, C. and Gray, N.F. , Environmental impact of acid mine drainage on the Avoca River: Metal fluxes in water and sediment. Part II Metal contamination of riverine sediments, Technical Report: 20, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-21-5)., 1995 Report, 1995

N.F. Gray and C. O'Neill, Artificial acid mine drainage for use in laboratory simulation studies, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 4, (8), 1995, p481 - 484 Journal Article, 1995

A. Kilroy and N.F. Gray, Treatability, toxicity and biodegradability test methods, Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 70, (2), 1995, p243 - 275 Journal Article, 1995

Herr, C. and Gray, N.F. , Environmental impact of acid mine drainage on the Avoca River: Metal fluxes in water and sediment. Part III Metals in water and suspended particulate matter., Technical Report: 21, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-22-3)., 1995 Report, 1995

Gray, N.F. and Sullivan, M. , The environmental Impact of acid mine drainage. , . Technical Report: 27, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-28-2), 1995 Report, 1995

C. Byrne and N.F. Gray, Effect of habitat types on the biological monitoring of acid mine drainage in rivers, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 4, 1995, p589 - 596 Journal Article, 1995

Gray, N.F. , Biorehabilitation of the acid mine drainage phenomenon by accelerated bioleaching of mine waste: Executive summary of the work done at Trinity College, Dublin. , Technical Report: 33, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-34-7), 1995 Report, 1995

Gray, N.F. , Procedure for the estimation of the impact of acid mine drainage to surface waters. , . Technical Report: 29, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-30-4), 1995 Report, 1995

Byrne, C. and Gray, N.F. , Environmental impact of acid mine drainage on the Avoca River: Acute toxicity experiments in the field using macro invertebrates, Technical Report: 18, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-19-3), 1995 Report, 1995

Claudia Herr and N.F. Gray, Variationin metal contamination of riverine sediments below a copper and sulphur mine in south east Ireland, 2nd Specialized Conference on hazard assessment and Control of Environmental Contaminants in Water, Lyngby, Denmark, 29-30th June, 1995., edited by Technical University of Denmark , 1995, pp1-7- Conference Paper, 1995

Byrne, C. and Gray, N.F, Environmental impact of acid mine drainage on the Avoca River: Effects of habitat types on biological monitoring of the macro invertebrate fauna, Technical Report: 17, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-18-5), 1995 Report, 1995

Gray, N.F. , An objective index for the assessment of the contamination of surface and ground waters by acid mine drainage. , Technical Report: 22, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-23-1), 1995 Report, 1995

N.F. Gray, The influence of sludge accumulation rate on septic tank design, Environmental Technology, 16, (8), 1995, p795 - 800 Journal Article, 1995 DOI

Gray, N.F. , Influence of secondary sulphate mineral formation on the impact of acid mine drainage to surface waters, Technical Report: 16, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-17-7), 1995 Report, 1995

Gray, N.F. , Water quality of the surface waters at Avoca Mines and the Avoca River: Intensive sampling period May to October, 1994 (Interim report), Technical Report: 12, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-13-4), 1994 Report, 1994

Gray, N.F. and Doyle, T.M. , Characterisation of acid mine drainage generating sites, Technical Report: 11, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-12-6), 1994 Report, 1994

N.F. Gray, Drinking Water Quality: Problems and Solutions, First Edition, Chichester, John Wiley and Sons Ltd., 1994, 1 - 315pp Book, 1994

Gray, N.F. , Flow calculation in the River Avoca: flow calculation and flow data. , Technical Report: 10, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-11-8) , 1994 Report, 1994

Gray, N.F. , Main adit flow and metal discharge rates at Avoca Mines, Co. Wicklow.. , Technical Report: 13, Water Technology Research, Trinity College, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-14-2), 1994 Report, 1994

N.F. Gray and T. Keenan, Physical charaterization of septic tank performance, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 2, (1), 1993, p49 - 52 Journal Article, 1993

N.F. Gray and T. Keenan, Physical characterization of septic tank performance, Fresenius Environmental Bulletin, 2, (2), 1993, p114 - 118 Journal Article, 1993

Water Technology, Oxford Illustrated Encyclopaedia, Volume 6: Invention and Technology, 1992, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, [N.F. Gray] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 1992

N.F. Gray, Biology of Wastewater Treatment, Revised Edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1992, 1 - 830pp Book, 1992

A.C. Kilroy and N.F. Gray, Pilot plant investigations of treatability of ethylene glycol by activated sludge, Environmental Technology, 13, (3), 1992, p293 - 300 Journal Article, 1992 DOI

A.C. Kilroy and N.F. Gray, The toxicity of four organic solvents commonly used in the pharmaceutical industry to activated sludge, Water Research, 26, (7), 1992, p887 - 892 Journal Article, 1992 DOI

Sullivan, M. and Gray, N.F. , An evaluation of the fisheries potential of the Avoca catchment, Technical Report 9, Water Technology Research, University of Dublin, Dublin. (ISBN 1-872220-10-0) , 1992 Report, 1992

N.F. Gray, Food processing and wastewater, Technology Ireland, 24, (11/12), 1992, p49 - 52 Journal Article, 1992

N.F. Gray, Food processing and wastewater treatment: some basic considerations, Hygiene Review, 1992, p37 - 43 Journal Article, 1992

Biological aspects of secondary sewage treatment in, Secondary Wastewater Treatment, Dublin, Institution of Engineers in Ireland, 1991, pp17 - 45, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 1991

A.C. Kilroy and N.F. Gray, The validation of pilot plants designed to investigate the treatability of industrial wastewater on an activated sludge plant, Environmental Technology, 12, (5), 1991, p399 - 406 Journal Article, 1991 DOI

N.F. Gray, Activated Sludge: Theory and Practice, First Edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1990, 1 - 275pp Book, 1990

F. Bailey and N.F. Gray, The comparison of isolation techniques for nematophagous fungi from soil, Annals of Applied Biology, 114, (2), 1989, p125 - 132 Journal Article, 1989 DOI

N.F. Gray, The effect of small changes in incubation temperature on the five day biochemical oxygen demand test, Environmental Technology Letters, 10, (2), 1989, p253 - 258 Journal Article, 1989 DOI

G.D. Fitzmaurice and N.F. Gray, Evaluation of manufactured inocula for use in the BOD test, Water Research, 23, (5), 1989, p655 - 657 Journal Article, 1989 DOI

European Communities (Quality of Bathing Waters) Regulations 1988 in, Environmental Health Officers Yearbook 1989, Dublin, Environmental Health Officers Association, 1989, pp71 - 74, [N.F. Gray and R. Coen] Book Chapter, 1989

N.F. Gray, Biology of Wastewater Treatment, First Edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1989, 1 - 829pp Book, 1989

N.F. Gray, BOD incubators and temperature variability, Environmental Technology Letters, 10, (2), 1989, p259 - 268 Journal Article, 1989 DOI

F. Bailey and N.F. Gray, The effect of replication on the probability of isolating nematophagous fungi from soil, Plant and Soil, 113, (2), 1989, p141 - 143 Journal Article, 1989 DOI

Fungi attacking vermiform nematodes in, editor(s)G.O. Poinar and H.B. Jansson , Diseases of Nematodes: Volume II, Florida, USA, CRC Press Inc., 1988, pp3 - 38, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 1988

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: effect of soil nutrients N, P, and K, and seven major metals on distribution, Plant and Soil, 108, (3), 1988, p286 - 290 Journal Article, 1988 DOI

N.F. Gray, Sugar Beet Processing in Ireland: a Case Study, First Edition, Dublin, Water Technology Press, 1988, 1 - 412pp Book, 1988

N.F. Gray, Nematophagous fungi with particular reference to their ecology, Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosphophical Society, 62, (3), 1987, p245 - 304 Journal Article, 1987 DOI

N. Deering and N.F. Gray, The 'polluter-pays-principle': who is really paying? A comparison of trade effluent treatment charges by municipal authorities in five european countries, Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, 26, 1986, p138 - 142 Journal Article, 1986

N.F. Gray, Partial medium replacement to uprate the performance of trickling filters: summary of the chemical data, Irish Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3, (2), 1986, p26 - 30 Journal Article, 1986

N.F. Gray, The bathing water directive: a challenge to Ireland, Technology Ireland, 18, (12), 1986, p15 - 20 Journal Article, 1986

J.G. Wilson, N. Allott, F. Bailey, and N.F. Gray, A survey of the pollution status of the Liffey estuary, Irish Journal of Environmental Sciences, 3, 1986, p15 - 20 Journal Article, 1986

N.F. Gray, Heterotrophic slimes in flowing waters, Biological Reviews, Cambridge Philosophical Society, 60, (4), 1985, p499-548- Journal Article, 1985 DOI

N.F. Gray, Nematophagous fungi from the maritime Antarctic: factors affecting distribution, Mycopathologia, 90, (2), 1985, p165 - 176 Journal Article, 1985 DOI

N.F. Gray, Universities and the water industry: a personal perspective, Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, 25, (8), 1985, p299- Journal Article, 1985

N.F. Gray, Environmental protection in the Republic of Ireland, Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, 25, (3), 1985, p83 - 89 Journal Article, 1985

N.F. Gray and C.A. Hunter, Heterotrophic slimes in Irish rivers: evaluation of the problems, Water Research, 19, (6), 1985, p685 - 692 Journal Article, 1985

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: effect of soil moisture, organic matter, pH and nematode density on distribution, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 17, (4), 1985, p499 - 507 Journal Article, 1985 DOI

N.F. Gray and F. Bailey, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: vertical distribution in a deciduous woodland, Plant and Soil, 86, (2), 1985, p217 - 223 Journal Article, 1985 DOI

N.F. Gray, Monacrosporium psychrophilium, a nematode-destroying fungus new to Ireland, Irish Journal of Agricultural Research, 24, (1), 1985, p129 - 132 Journal Article, 1985

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: comparison of the soil sprinkling method with the Baerman funnel technique in the isolation of endoparasites, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16, (4), 1984, p81 - 83 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray and M.A. Learner, Estimation of film accumulation in percolating filters: comparison of methods, Water Research, 18, (4), 1984, p1509 - 1514 Journal Article, 1984 DOI

N.F. Gray, How neutron scattering can improve sewage treatment, Technology Ireland, 15, (9), 1984, p61 - 62 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, The effect of fungal parasitism and predation on the population dynamics of nematodes in activated sludge process, Annals of Applied Biology, 104, (1), 1984, p143 - 149 Journal Article, 1984 DOI

N.F. Gray and J. Clarke , Heavy metals in heterotrophic slimes in Irish rivers, Environmental Technology Letters, 5, (4), 1984, p201 - 206 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray and R.I.L. Smith, The distribution of nematophagous fungi from the maritime Antarctic, Mycopathologia, 85, (2), 1984, p81 - 92 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, Ecological consequences of Amblystegium riparium growing on a sewage work's percolating filter, Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, 8, 1984, p26 - 30 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray and M.A. Learner, Comparative pilot-scale investigation into uprating the performance of percolating filters by partial medium replacement, Water Research, 18, (4), 1984, p409 - 422 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: predatory and endoparasitic species new to Ireland, Irish Naturalists' Journal, 21, (8), 1984, p337 - 341 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: methods of collection, isolation and maintenance of predatory and endoparasitic fungi, Mycopathologia, 86, (2), 1984, p143 - 153 Journal Article, 1984 DOI

N.F. Gray, The distribution of nematophagous fungi in Ireland, Bulletin of the Irish Biogeographical Society, 7, 1984, p19 - 37 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: comparison of the soil sprinkling method with the baerman funnel technique in the isolation of endoparasites, Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16, (4), 1984, p81 - 83 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, Biological film control in percolating filters using neutron scattering, Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, 24, (5), 1984, p203 - 205 Journal Article, 1984

N.F. Gray, The significance of flow pattern on retention analysis in percolating filters, Irish Journal of Environmental Science, 2, (2), 1983, p293 - 297 Journal Article, 1983

Micro-organisms in waste treatment in, editor(s)J.P. Arbuthnott , Microbiology and Pollution: Problems and Perspectives, Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, 1983, pp31 - 47, [N.F. Gray] Book Chapter, 1983

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: Panagrellus redivivus as the target nematode, Plant and soil, 73, (2), 1983, p293 - 297 Journal Article, 1983 DOI

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: Arthrobotrys musiformis a nematode-destroying fungus new to Ireland, Irish Journal of Agricultural Research, 22, (1), 1983, p107 - 111 Journal Article, 1983

N.F. Gray and M.A. Learner, A pilot-scale percolating filter for use in sewage treatment studies, Water Research, 17, (3), 1983, p249 - 253 Journal Article, 1983 DOI

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: distribution and habitat, Annals of Applied Biology, 102, (3), 1983, p501 - 509 Journal Article, 1983 DOI

N.F. Gray, Ponding of random plastic filter medium due to the fungus Subbaromyces splendens Hesseltine in the treatment of sewage, Water Research, 17, (10), 1983, p1295 - 1302 Journal Article, 1983 DOI

N.F. Gray, Observations and taxonomic notes on predaceous fungi from Ireland, Irish Naturalists' Journal, 21, (2), 1983, p89 - 91 Journal Article, 1983

N.F. Gray, Ecology of nematophagous fungi: notes on the identification of Acrostalagmus obovatus Dreschsler, Cephalosporium balanoides Dreschsler and Verticillium sphaersporum Goodey, Irish Naturalists' Journal, 21, (3), 1983, p125 - 128 Journal Article, 1983

N.F. Gray, Further observations on predaceous fungi from Ireland, Irish Naturalists' Journal, 21, (1), 1983, p18 - 22 Journal Article, 1983

N.F. Gray, The use of percolating filters in teaching ecology, Journal of Biological Education, 16, (3), 1982, p183 - 186 Journal Article, 1982

N.F. Gray, A key to the slime-forming organisms of sewage fungus, Journal of Life Sciences, Royal Dublin Society, 4, (2), 1982, p97 - 102 Journal Article, 1982

N.F. Gray and K.R. Duff, Some preliminary observations on predaceous fungi from Ireland, Irish Naturalists' Journal, 20, (8), 1982, p374 - 380 Journal Article, 1982

N.F. Gray, Psychrotolerant nematophagous fungi from the maritime Antarctic, Plant and Soil, 64, (4), 1982, p431 - 435 Journal Article, 1982 DOI

N.F. Gray, C.H.E. Wyborn and R.I.L. Smith, Nematophagous fungi from the maritime Antarctic, Oikos, 38, (2), 1982, p194 - 201 Journal Article, 1982

N.F. Gray , Flow simulation and simple flow tank design, Journal of Biological Education, 16, (2), 1982, p100 - 101 Journal Article, 1982

N.F. Gray, Percolating filters, Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, 21, (8), 1981, p374 - 380 Journal Article, 1981

N.F. Gray, Simple retention time analysis in percolating filters using conductivity, Effluent and Water Treatment Journal, 21, (8), 1981, p345 - 347 Journal Article, 1981

N.F. Gray, Communication on the pollution of a water supply catchment by breeding gulls and the potential environmental health implications, Journal of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists, 33, (5), 1979, p474 - 477 Journal Article, 1979

Research Expertise

Description

Professor Nick Gray has worked primarily in the area of biological wastewater treatment for thirty years, working mainly on full-scale treatment systems both here and abroad. The prime focus of his work is the design and operation of reactor processes. Key areas include: optimization of percolating filters, bulking and foaming control in activated sludge systems, aerobic digestion, treatment of pharmaceutical wastewaters, the use of the micro-biota in operational management, and the decontamination and disposal of sewage sludge. Work on river pollution control has always run in parallel to his work on wastewater treatment. Key areas include: biological monitoring of rivers pollution impact analysis; sewage fungus control; sediment processes and acid mine drainage. With a strong commitment to both research and training he started a research group in 1982 Water Technology Research. Under this umbrella training workshops were held both in Ireland and Italy. It also fronted an active consultancy service that underpinned his research throughout the 1980's and to the mid 1990's. "I am afraid I have not doggedly followed a set path of research, restricting myself to a single concept or set of inter-related hypotheses. I have been unashamedly self-indulgent following the routes that have interested me the most. I have worked in many other areas of environmental sciences including agriculture, countryside management, catchment management, transportation, nematophagous fungi etc. So although I am primarily an environmental engineer, I am also an active environmental scientist." His current interests focus on the microbial reactions in activated sludge with an increasing proportion of his time spent on looking at ways in which society will cope with a post climate change environment.

Keywords

Acid mine drainage; ACTIVATED SLUDGE; Carbon footprinting; Drinking water quality; Environmental biotechnology; Environmental Engineering; Environmental Impacts; Environmental Indicators, Monitoring, Risk Assessment; Environmental planning and sustainable development; FOAMS; Greenhouse gas emission assessment; METALS; Microbial ecology; MINE MANAGEMENT; Percolating (trickling) filters; PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATER; PHARMACEUTICAL WASTEWATERS; Process Engineering; REED-BED; River pollution; RIVER SUBSTRATE; Sanitary Engineering; Sanitary Engineering, Environmental Impacts; Sewage sludge; SEWAGE-TREATMENT PLANTS; SLUDGE STABILISATION; SMALL SEWAGE-TREATMENT WORKS; SUBSTANCES; TOXICANTS; Unit Operations Engineering; Waste water treatment; WATER; Water engineering; Water Monitoring, Quality, Treatment; Water Quality; Water Supply; Water Treatment; WETLANDS

Recognition

Representations

Standing Committee of Analysts, Department of the Environment, London. 1988

Royal Irish Academy National Committee for Hydrobiology. 1987

Member of the Soviet Working Group on National Water Protection based at Rostov-on-Don. 1986

Committee of the Institution of Water and Environmental Management 1988

External Examiner for undergraduate and postgraduate courses: B.Sc. Environmental Science and Technology, Cambourne School of Mines, University of Exeter; M.Sc. Water and Wastewater Engineering, Water Pollution Technology, Water and Wastewater Technology, University of Cranfield; M.Sc.(Eng) Water Engineering and Project Management, University of Leeds.

Reviewer: Annals of Applied Biology: Chemosphere; Environmental Enginering Science; Freshwater Ecology; Journal of Applied Ecology; Journal of Environmental Science and Health (Part A); Journal of Hazardous Materials; Environmental Geochemistry and Health; International Journal of Food Science and Technology; Oikos; Plant and Soil; Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy; Process Biochemistry; Science of the Total Environment; Soil Biology and Biochemistry; Water Science and Technology; Water Research etc.

Awards and Honours

Who's Who in Science 2001-present

Who's Who in the World 1999-present

Sc.D. (Higher Doctorate in Science for published work 1979-89) 1991

F.T.C.D. (Elected to Fellowship of Trinity College, Dublin) 1985

Fellow Institute of Biology; Royal Society of Biology 2004

Memberships

F.L.S. (Fellow of the Linnean Society of London) 1976

M.I.W.P.C. (Corportae Member of the Institute of Water Pollution Control) 1976

M.I.Biol. (Member of the Insitute of Biology) 1979

M.I.W.E.S. (Corporate Member of the Institution of Water Engineers and Scientists) 1981

C. Biol. (Chartered Biologist) 1984

Member of the Soviet Insitute of Geochemistry and Cosmochemistry. 1986

M.C.I.W.E.M. (Corporate Member of the Chartered Institution of Water and Environmental Management) 1987

Member of the National Academy of Science, New York. 1999

F.I.Biol. (Fellow of the Institute of Biology) 2004

Fellow of the Royal Society of Biology (FRSB) 2014 – Present


Last updated 8 June 2015 by biodiversity@tcd.ie.