John Horne
Fellow Emeritus, History

Biography

A member of the Department of History in Trinity College Dublin since 1977, I was appointed to a personal chair in Modern European History in 2003. Initially a labour and social historian, I have engaged with cultural history for the last fifteen years, especially relating to the study of the Great War, without renouncing my earlier commitment to social history. France has been at the centre of my interests, but I have always done comparative history at the level of research as well as at that of conceptualization and reflection. More recently, I have been drawn by the question of how to write the contemporary history of Europe at a transnational level, rather than as a set of comparative national histories. In addition to being an executive member of the Research Centre of the Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne (France), I am on the Management Committee of EURHISTXX, a European contemporary history network made up of twelve research institutes and history departments across Europe. In 2008 I was appointed the first director of the new Centre for War Studies in TCD. I have supervised PhD theses in many aspects of First World War studies in different countries and in various fields of twentieth century French history.

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

John Horne, 'Réflexions pour un centenaire', La Revue Générale, 149, (3/4), 2014, p8 - 21 Journal Article, 2014

'The Living' in, editor(s)Jay Winter , Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. 3, Civil Society, Cambridge , Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp592 - 617, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2014

'The Great War at its Centenary' in, editor(s)Jay Winter , Cambridge History of the First World War, chapter 3, Civil Society, Cambridge , Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp618 - 639, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2014

'Atrocities and War Crimes' in, editor(s)Jay Winter , Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. 1, Global War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp561 - 583, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2014

Defending victory: paramilitary politics in France, 1918-1926 in, editor(s)Robert Gerwarth & John Horne , Paramiltary Violence in Europe after the First World War, 1917-1923, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2013, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2013 DOI

'Beyond Cultures of Victory and Defeat? Inter-War Veteran Internationallism' in, editor(s)Julia Eichenberg and John Paul Newman , The Great War and Veterans' Internationalism, Basingstoke, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013, pp207 - 222, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2013

John Horne, 'Guerres prémonitoires? Visions croisées des conflits balkaniques (1912-1913). France et Grande-Bretagne', Francia, 40, 2013, p455 - 464 Journal Article, 2013

John Horne and Edward Madigan, Towards Commemoration: Ireland in the Decade of War and Revolution, 1912-1923, Dublin, Royal Irish Academy, 2013, 1 - 175pp Book, 2013

John Horne and Robert Gerwarth (eds.), War in Peace. Paramiltary Violence in Europe after the First World War, 1917-1923, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, 1 - 254pp Book, 2012

Bolshevism as fantasy: fear of revolution and revolutionary violence, 1917-1923 in, editor(s)Robert Gerwarth & John Horne , War in Peace. Paramiltary Violence in Europe after the First World War, 1917-1923, 2013, Oxford University Press, 2012, [Robert Gerwarth & John Horne] Book Chapter, 2012 DOI

Paramilitarism in Europe after the Great War: an introduction in, War in Peace. Paramiltary Violence in Europe after the First World War, 1917-1923, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, [John Horne & Robert Gerwarth] Book Chapter, 2012 DOI

John Horne (ed), Viols en temps de guerre, Paris, Payot, 2011, 1 - 270pp Book, 2011

John Horne and Robert Gerwarth, 'Vectors of Violence: Paramilitarism in Europe after the Great War', Journal of Modern History, 83, 2011, p489 - 512 Journal Article, 2011

A Companion to World War One, Oxford, Blackwell, [ed.], 2010 Editorial Board, 2010

John Horne (ed.), Vers la guerre totale: le tournant de 1914-1915, Paris, Tallandier, 2010, 1 - 343pp Book, 2010

Robert Gerwarth and John Horne, The Great War and Paramilitarism in Europe, 1917-23, Contemporary European History, 19, 2010, p267-273 Journal Article, 2010 TARA - Full Text

'De la guerre de mouvement à la guerre de positions: les combattants français' in, editor(s)John Horne , Vers la guerre totale: le tournant de 1914-1915, Paris, Tallandier, 2010, pp77 - 95, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2010

Public Opinion and Politics in, editor(s)John Horne , A Blackwell Companion to World War One, Oxford, Blackwell, 2010, pp279-294 , [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2010

John Horne , Demobilizing the Mind: France and the Legacy of the Great War, 1919-1939, French History and Civilization, 2, 2009, p101 - 119 Journal Article, 2009

Guerres et reconciliations européennes au 20e siècle in, editor(s)Jean-Noël Jeanneney , Les 27 leçons d'histoire, Paris, Le Seuil , 2009, pp137-45 , [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2009

The Soldiers' War: Coercion or Consent? in, editor(s)Jay Winter , The Legacy of the Great War: Ninety Years On, Columbia MO, 2009, pp91 - 122 , [John Horne and Leonard Smith] Book Chapter, 2009

John Horne (ed.), State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War, second, Beijing, Beijing Institute of Technology Press, 2008, .244pp Book, 2008

John Horne, Our War. Ireland and the Great War, RTE and Royal Irish Academy, 2008, xv + 320pp., Dublin, RTE and Royal Irish Academy, 2008, xv, 320pp Book, 2008

Defeat and Memory on Modern History in, editor(s)Jenny Macleod , Defeat and Memory. Cultural Histories of Military Defeat in the Modern Era, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 2008, pp11 - 29, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2008

Our War, Our History in, editor(s)John Horne , Our War, Ireland and the Great War, Dublin, RTE and Royal Irish Academy, 2008, pp3 - 14, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2008

John Horne, 'La Reconstruction du nord-est de la France après 1918', Les Chemins de la Mémoire, 173, (June), 2007, p7 - 10 Journal Article, 2007

John Horne, Ireland on the Somme: A Tale of Two Divisions, History Today, 57, (4), 2007, p12 - 19 Journal Article, 2007

L'Empire britannique, L'Historial de la Grande Guerre, 1916. La Bataille de la Somme/The Battle of the Somme/ Die Schlacht an der Somme, Paris, Somogy éditions d'art, 2006, pp84 - 88, [John Horne] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2006

'World War One', John Merriman and Jay Winter, Europe since 1914. Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006, pp2751 - 2766, [John Horne] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2006

John Horne, 'James Connolly and the Great Divide: Ireland, Europe and the First World War', Saothar. Journal of the Irish Labour History Society, 31, 2006, p75 - 83 Journal Article, 2006

Deutscher Vormarsch und Besatzung 1914-1916 in, editor(s)Gerhard Hirschfeld, Gerd Krumeich and Irina Renz , Die Deutschen an der Somme. Besatzungpolitik und Kriegführung in Frankreich 1914-1918, Essen, Klartext, 2006, pp11 - 20, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2006

European Review, 14, 4, (2006), 415 - 522p, John Horne, [eds.] Journal, 2006

L'armée britannique, Historial de la Grande Guerre, 1916. La Bataille de la Somme/The Battle of the Somme/ Die Schlacht an der Somme, Paris, Somogy éditions d'art, 2006, pp38 - 44, [John Horne] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2006

John Horne, The Origins and Nature of Fascism in Europe, History Ireland, 13, (1), 2005, p36 - 41 Journal Article, 2005

'German "Atrocities" and Franco-German Opinion, 1914: the Evidence of German Soldiers' Diaries' in, editor(s)Michael Neiburg , World War I, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2005, pp323 - 355, [Horne J., Kramer A.] Book Chapter, 2005

Les Milieux des sciences humaines et sociales face aux atrocités pendant et après la guerre ­ Henri Pirenne, Fernand van Langenhove, Marc Bloc in, Jean- Jacques Becker , Histoire culturelle de la Grande Guerre, Paris, Armand Colin, 2005, pp11 - 19, [Horne J.] Book Chapter, 2005

John Horne, Entre expérience et mémoire: les soldats français de la Grande Guerre, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 60, (5), 2005, p903 - 919 Journal Article, 2005

Kulturelle Demobilmachung, 1919-1939: ein sinnvoller historischer Begriff? in, editor(s)Wolfgang Hardtwig , Politische Kulturgeschichte der Zwischenkriegszeit 1918-1939, Göttingen, Vandenhoek & Ruprecht, 2005, pp129 - 150, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2005

Kulturelle Demobilmachung 1919-1939. Ein sinnvoller historischer Begriff? in, editor(s)Wolfgang Hardtwig , Politische Kulturgeschichte der Zwischenkriegszeit 1918-1939, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2005, pp129 - 150, [Horne J.] Book Chapter, 2005

Film and Cultural Demobilization after the Great War: the two Versions of J'Accuse by Abel Gance (1918 and 1938) in, editor(s)Hanna Diamond and Simon Kitson , Vichy, Resistance, Liberation: New Perspectives on Wartime France, Oxford and Providence, Berg, 2005, pp131 - 141, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2005

John Horne, Le milieu des sciences humaines et sociales face aux atrocités pendant et après la guerre - Henri Pirenne, Fernand van Langenhove, Marc Bloch, 14-18 Aujourd'hui-Heute-Today, 7, 2004, p11 - 19 Journal Article, 2004

John Horne, Encyclopédie de la Grande Guerre, Paris, Editions Bayard, 2004, pp1241 - 1252, [La Grande Guerre dans l'histoire] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2004

John Horne, War and Conflict in Contemporary Europe, 1914-2004, Zeithistorische Forschungen, 1, (2), 2004, p347 - 362 Journal Article, 2004

Ein Laboratorium für den tota len Krieg - Heimatfronten 1914 bis 1918 in, editor(s)Rainer Rother , Der Weltkrieg 1914-1918. Ereignis und Erinnerung, Berlin, Deutches H istorisches Muesum, 2004, pp50 - 57, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

L'Après-guerre: mémoire et cont entieux in, editor(s)Serge Jaumain et al. , 14-18: une Guerre totale? La Belgique dans la première guerre mondiale, Brussels, 2004, pp355 - 361, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

Propagande et vérité dans la Grande Guerre in, editor(s)Christophe Prochasson and Anne Rasmussen , Vrai et Faux dans la Grande Guerre, Paris, Bayard, 2004, pp76 - 95, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

Atrocités et exactions contre les civils, Encyclopédie de la Grande Guerre, Paris, Editions Bayard, 2004, pp367 - 380, [John Horne] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2004

The European Moment between the Two World Wars, 1924-1933 in, editor(s)Madeon de Keizer and Sophie Tates , Modernity, Modernism and Mass Culture in the Netherlands 1914-1940, Amsterdam, Netherlands Instituut voor Oorlogsdocumentie, 2004, pp223 - 240, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

The Transformation of Society in, editor(s)James F. MacMillan , The Short Oxford History of France, vol. 7, Modern France, 1880-2000, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2004, pp127 - 149, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

John Horne, Encyclopédie de la Grande Guerre, Paris, Editions Bayard, 2004, pp601 - 612, [Ouvriers et l'usine de guerre] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2004

Masculinity in Politics and War in the Age of Nation-States and World Wars, 1850-1950 in, editor(s)S. Dudink., K. Hagemann and J. Tosh , Masculinities in Politics and War: Gendering Modern History, Manchester, Manchester University Press, 2004, pp22 - 40, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

Belgian Intellectuals and the German Invasion, 1914-1915 in, editor(s)Serge Jaumain et al. , 14-18: une Guerre totale? La Belgique dans la première guerre mondiale, Brussels, 2004, pp321 - 333, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2004

Les Civils dans la guerre in, editor(s)Bruno Cabanes and Édouard Husson , Sociétés en guerre 1911-1946, Paris, Armand Colin, 2003, pp7 - 19, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2003

Entries on Barbaren (pp. 370-372), Edward Carson (pp. 407-408), Roger Casement (p. 408), Irland (pp. 586-589), Louis-Jean Malvy (695-696), Reims (790-791), G. Hirschfeld, G. Krumeich, and I. Renz, Enzyklopädie des Ersten Weltkrieges, Paderborn, Verlag Ferdinand Schöningh, 2003, [John Horne] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2003

John Horne, German Atrocities in 1914: Fact, Fantasy or Fabrication?, History Today, 2002, p47 - 53 Journal Article, 2002

Defining the Enemy: War, Law and the Levée en Masse, 1870-1945 in, editor(s)Daniel Moran and Arthur Waldron , The People in Arms: Military Myth and Political Legitimacy since the French Revolution, New York and Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2002, pp100 - 123, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2002

14-18 Aujourd'hui-Heute-Today (Paris), theme issue on Démobilisations culturelles après la grande guerre, 5, (2002), John Horne, [eds.] Journal, 2002

Les Civils et les violences de guerre in, editor(s)Annette Becker and Henry Rousso , Violences de guerre et guerres mondiales, Brussels, Editions Complexe, 2002, pp135 - 150, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2002

John Horne, Dinant, août 1914. Enquête sur les atrocités allemandes, L'Histoire, 270, 2002, p77 - 81 Journal Article, 2002

John Horne, Locarno et la politique de la démobilisation culturelle, 1925-30, 14- 18 Aujourd'hui-Heute-Today (Paris), 5, 2002, p73 - 87 Journal Article, 2002

John Horne, Populations civiles et violences de guerre: pistes d'une analyse historique, International Journal of Social Science (UNESCO), 174, 2002, p535 - 541 Journal Article, 2002

Actes du colloque in, Documenting a Delusion: Sources and Concepts used in writing German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial (2001), Brussels, Archives Générales du Royaume and Musée Royal de l'Armée, 2002, pp256 - 267, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2002

John Horne, Une Histoire à repenser, Vingtième siècle, 71, 2001, p67 - 72 Journal Article, 2001

John Horne, Alan Kramer, German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 2001, xv + 608pp Book, 2001

Come finire la guerra? La pace e la pace ,1918-1919 in, editor(s)Giampietro Berti and Piero del Negro , Al di qua e al di là del Piave. L'ultimo anno della Grande Guerra, Milan, Franco Angeli, 2001, pp81 - 90, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2001

John Horne, 1848 and the Language of Politics, Saothar, 25, 2001, p67 - 76 Journal Article, 2001

War between soldiers and enemy civilians, 1914-15 in, editor(s)R. Chickering and S. Förster , How Total was the Great War? Germany, France, Great Britain and the United States, 1914-1918, New York, Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp153 - 168, [John Horne, Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2000

Labor and Labor Movements in World War I in, editor(s)Jay Winter, Geoffrey Parker, and Mary Habeck , The Great War and the Twentieth Century, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 2000, pp187 - 227, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2000

Der Schatten des Krieges: Französische Politik in den zwanziger Jahren in, editor(s)Hans Mommsen , Der Erste Weltkrieg und die europäische Nachkriegsordnung. Sozialer Wandel und Formveränderung der Politik, Cologne, Böhlau, 2000, pp145 - 164, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 2000

John Horne, Corps, lieux et nation: la France et l'invasion de 1914, Annales. Histoire, Sciences Sociales, 55, (1), 2000, p73 - 109 Journal Article, 2000

John Horne, Smobilitazioni culturali dopo la Grande Guerra, 1919-39, Italia Contemporanea, 215, 1999, p325 - 339 Journal Article, 1999

The Sphinx in the Tuile ries and Other Essays in Modern French History in, editor(s)R. Aldrich and M. Lyons , From levée en masse to 'total war': France and the revolutionary legacy, 1870-1945, Sydney, Department of Economic History, University of Sydney, 1999, pp319 - 337, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1999

Socialism, peace and revolution, 1917-18 in, editor(s)H. Strachan , The Oxford Illustrated History of the First World War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 1998, pp227 - 238, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1998

John Horne, Democracies at War: France and Britain, 1914-1920, 'Guerra e mutamento', Ricerche storiche, 1998, p467 - 487 Journal Article, 1998

Remobilizing for 'total' war: France and Britain, 1917-18 in, editor(s)J. Horne , State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp195 - 211, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1997

John Horne, State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, xv + 292pp Book, 1997

L'Invasion de 1914 dans la mémoire (Fra nce, Grande-Bretagne, Belgique, Allemagne) in, editor(s)R. Cazals, S. Caucanas , Traces de 14-18 . Actes du colloque de Carcassonne, 24-27 avril 1996, Carcassonne, Les Audois, 1997, pp115 - 126, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1997

Introduction: Mobilizing for 'total war': 1914-18 in, editor(s)J. Horne , State, Society and Mobilization in Europe during the First World War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp1 - 17, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1997

L'Etranger, la guerre et l'image de , 1914-1918 in, editor(s)J.-P. Jessenne , L'Image de l'autre dans l'Europe du nord-ouest a travers l'histoire, Lille, Université Charles de Gaulle-Lille III, 1996, pp133 - 144, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1996

Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains (Paris), theme issue on 'Nouvelles pistes de l'histoire urbaine, 1914-18, 183, (1996), John Horne, [eds.] Journal, 1996

John Horne, Etat, société et "économie morale": l'approvisionnement des civils pendant la guerre de 1914-18, Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains, 183, 1996, p4 - 11 Journal Article, 1996

Soldiers, Civilians and the Warfare of Attrition: Representations of Combat in France, 1914-1918 in, F. Coetzee and M. Shevin-Coetzee , Authority, Identity and the Social History of the First World War, Providence, R.I., and Oxford, Berghahn Books, 1995, pp223 - 249, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1995

John Horne, H. Gough, De Gaulle and Twentieth Century France, London, Edward Arnold, 1994, xxvi + 158pp Book, 1994

J. Horne, A. Kramer, German "atrocities" and Franco-German Opinion, 1914: the Evidence of German Soldiers' Diaries, Journal of Modern History (Chicago), 66, (1), 1994, p1 - 33 Journal Article, 1994

Les Mains coupées: "atrocités allemandes" et opinion française en 1914 in, editor(s)J.-J. Becker et al , Guerre et cultures. 1914-1918, Paris, Armand Colin, 1994, pp133 - 146, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1994

Guerres mondiales et conflits contemporains (Paris) in, Les Mains coupées: "atrocités allemandes" et opinion française en 1914, 1993, pp29 - 43, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1993

Men, Women and War. (Irish Historical Studies XX) in, editor(s)T. Frazer, K. Jeffery , Social Identity in Wartime: France 1914-1918, Dublin, Lilliput Press, 1993, pp119 - 135, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1993

The State and the Challenge of Labour in France, 1917-1920 in, editor(s)C. J. Wrigley , Challenges of Labour: Central and Western Europe, 1917-20, London, Routledge, 1992, pp239 - 261, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1992

Les Chefs au secours des patries pendant la grande guerre (France, Allemagne, Grande-Bretagne) in, editor(s)L. Gervereau , Matériaux pour l' histoire de notre temps (Paris), special number on 'L' Image du pouvoir dans le dessin d' actualité, 1992, pp22 - 25, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1992

John Horne, La Società Britannica e la prima guerra mondiale: alcune tendenze della storiografia recente, Ricerche storiche (Florence), 21, (3), 1992, p577 - 611 Journal Article, 1992

The Comité d' Action (CGT-Parti Socialiste) and the Origins of Wartime Labour Reformism, 1914-1916 in, editor(s)P. Fridenson , The French Home Front, 1914-1918, New York and Oxford, Berg, 1992, pp241 - 279, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1992

John Horne, Labour at War. France and Britain, 1914-1918, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1991, xx + 463pp Book, 1991

John Horne, L' Impôt du sang: Republican Rhetoric and Industrial Warfare in France, 1914-1918, Social History (London), 14, (2), 1989, p201 - 223 Journal Article, 1989

Information, opinion publique, et l' offensive Nivelle in, Images de 1917, Paris, Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine/ Bibliothèque de Documentation Internationale Contemporaine, 1987, pp72 - 79, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1987

John Horne, L' Idée de nationalisation dans les mouvements ouvriers européens jusqu' à la deuxième guerre mondiale, Le Mouvement social (Paris), 134, 1986, p11 - 38 Journal Article, 1986

John Horne, Immigrant Workers in France during World War I, French Historical Studies (Ohio), 15, 1985, p57 - 88 Journal Article, 1985

A Parliamentary State at War: France, 1914-1918 in, editor(s)A. Cosgrove, J. McGuire , Parliament and Community (Irish Historical Studies, XIV), Belfast, Appletree Press, 1983, pp211 - 235, [John Horne] Book Chapter, 1983

John Horne, Le Comité d'Action (CGT-PS) et l' origine du réformisme syndical du temps de guerre (1914-1916), Le Mouvement social (Paris), 122, 1983, p33 - 60 Journal Article, 1983

John Horne, The Peasant in Nineteenth Century France, 1840-1914, The Peasant in Nineteenth Century French Art, 1980, p17 - 43 Journal Article, 1980

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

John Horne, 'The Global Legacies of World War One', Current History, 113, (November), 2014, p299 - 304 Journal Article, 2014

John Horne, ''Le front'', Vu du front. Représenter la Grande Guerre, 2014, Musée de l'Armée/ Musée d'Histoire Contemporaine, 2014, 17 - 28 Exhibition, 2014

Horne J., History (Institute for Historical Research, London), 2005 Review, 2005 URL

Horne J., Journal of Modern History, 77, (2), 2005, p429-30 Review, 2005

Research Expertise

Description

1. France and the Great War: a Cultural and Social History . A history of French experience in the Great War that uses primary research and the latest monographs at the national level to generate the framework of analysis while testing the arguments and providing detailed evidence through four local studies. 2. Cultural demobilization in inter-war Europe, 1919-39. Subject of edited volume from conference organized in September 2001. Related individual research projects on the cultural history of the League of Nations and Utopian housing projects in interwar Paris. 3. War crimes and war crimes trials in historical perspective. Subject of one-day seminar to be run in the summer of 2005, the proceedings to be published. 4. Rupture- remembrance-renewal: post-war period periods in 20 th century European history. A collaborative research project run by a consortium of history departments and research institutes across Europe (EURHIST XX).

Recognition

Representations

Member of the editorial advisory board of European Review of History/Revue européenne d'histoire.

Irish correspondent for Vingtième siècle (Paris)

Awards and Honours

Member of the Royal Irish Academy 2005

Memberships

Member of comité directeur of the Centre de Recherche, Historial de la Grande Guerre, Péronne (France)

Steering committee of EURHIST XX [a research consortium of departments and institutes across Europe developing 'European' approaches to the writing of 20 th century European history]