Alan Kramer
Professor of European History, History

Publications and Further Research Outputs

Peer-Reviewed Publications

La dinamica della distruzione. Cultura e uccisione di massa nella Prima guerra mondiale in, editor(s)Marco Mondini , La guerra come apocalisse. Interpretazioni, dislevamenti, paure, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2016, pp43 - 62, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2016

Alan Kramer, 'Atrocities', 1914-1918 Online: International Encyclopedia of the First World War, Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, 2015, - Digital research resource production, 2015

Krieg in den Köpfen: Zur Einführung in, editor(s)Susanne Brandt, Thomas Gerhards, Uta Hinz, Gerd Krumeich , Deutschland, Frankreich und der Krieg. Historische Studien zu Politik, Militär und Kultur, Essen, Klartext, 2015, pp73 - 77, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2015

Begrenzte und entgrenzte Gewalt in den Invasionen von 1914: Belgien, Ostpreußen, Galizien, Serbien' in, editor(s)Frank Becker , Zivilisten und Soldaten. Entgrenzte Gewalt in der Geschichte, Essen, Klartext, 2015, pp169 - 187, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2015

Alan Kramer, Recent Historiography of the First World War (Part II), Journal of Modern European History, 12, (2), 2014, p155 - 174 Journal Article, 2014 URL

Blockade and economic warfare in, editor(s)Jay Winter , The Cambridge History of the First World War, vol. II: The State, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 2014, pp460 - 489, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2014

Alan Kramer, Recent Historiography of the First World War, Part I, Journal of Modern European History, 12, (1), 2014, p5 - 27 Journal Article, 2014

Janz, Oliver and Kramer, Alan, 'Introduction', 1914-1918-online. International Encyclopedia of the First World War., Berlin, Freie Universität Berlin, 2014, - Digital research resource production, 2014

Alan Kramer, Dynamic of Destruction. Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War, Louvain Studies, 38, (3), 2014, p211 - 227 Journal Article, 2014

Aseinatos en masa y genocido de 1914 a 1945: un intento de anális comparativo in, editor(s)Javier Rodrigo , Políticas de la violencia. Europa, siglo XX, Zaragoza, Prensas de la Universidad de Zaragoza, 2014, pp33 - 61, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2014

Einleitung in, editor(s)Alan Kramer and Bettina Greiner , Welt der Lager. Zur , Hamburg, Hamburger Edition, 2013, pp7 - 42, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2013

Alan Kramer and Bettina Greiner, eds, Welt der Lager. Zur "Erfolgsgeschichte" einer Institution, Hamburg, Hamburger Edition, 2013, 359 pppp Book, 2013

Alan Kramer, Deutsche Kriegsgräuel im Ersten Weltkrieg?, Geschichte in Wissenschaft und Unterricht, 63, (7/8), 2012, p389 - 401 Journal Article, 2012

Surrender of soldiers in World War I in, editor(s)Holger Afflerbach and Hew Strachan , How Fighting Ends: A History of Surrender, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2012, pp265 - 279, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2012

Alan Kramer, Editorial, Mittelweg 36. Zeitschrift des Hamburger Instituts für Sozialforschung, 20, (4), 2011, p36 - 39 Journal Article, 2011

German War Crimes 1914 and 1941. The Question of Continuity in, editor(s)Sven Oliver Müller and Cornelius Torp , Imperial Germany Revisited: Continuing Debates and New Perspectives, Oxford and New York, Berghahn Books, 2011, pp239 - 250, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2011

Kriegsgräuel 1914/1941: Gewaltgeschichte und das Zeitalter der Weltkriege in, editor(s)Jörg Echternkamp, Wolfgang Schmidt, Thomas Vogel , Perspektiven der Militärgeschichte. Raum, Gewalt und Repräsentation in historischer Forschung und Bildung, Munich, Oldenbourg, 2010, pp173 - 186, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2010

Combatants and Noncombatants: Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes in, editor(s)John Horne , A Companion to the First World War, Oxford, Chichester, and Malden, Mass., Blackwell-Wiley, 2010, pp188 - 201, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2010

Prisoners in the First World War in, editor(s)Sibylle Scheipers , Prisoners in War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2010, pp75 - 90, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2010

Mass Killing and Genocide from 1914 to 1945: Attempting a Comparative Analysis in, editor(s)Christian Wiese and Paul Betts , Years of Persecution, Years of Extermination. Saul Friedländer and the Future of Holocaust Studies, London and New York, Continuum, 2010, pp213 - 232, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2010

Ethnische Säuberungen vom Ersten Weltkrieg zum Nationalsozialismus in, editor(s)Gerd Krumeich , Nationalsozialismus und Erster Weltkrieg, Essen, Klartext, 2010, pp323 - 345, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2010

'The First World War as cultural trauma' in, editor(s)Richard J.B. Bosworth, ed. , The Oxford Handbook of Fascism, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2009, pp32 - 51, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2009

Alan Kramer, Asesinatos en masa y genocidio entre 1914 y 1945: un intento de análisis comparativo, Ayer. Revista de Historia Contemporánea, 76, (4), 2009, p177 - 205 Journal Article, 2009

German War Crimes 1914/1941: Continuity or Break? in, editor(s)Matteo Paesano for the Commissione italiana di storia militare , Conflitti militari e popolazioni civili. Guerre totali, guerre limitate, guerre asimmetriche/Military conflicts and civil populations. Total wars, limited wars, asymmetric wars, Rome, Ministero della Difesa and Commissione Italiana di Storia Militare, 2009, pp361 - 365, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2009

Deutsche Kriegsverbrechen 1914/1941: Kontinuität oder Bruch? in, editor(s)Sven Oliver Müller and Cornelius Torp , Das deutsche Kaiserreich in der Kontroverse, Göttingen, Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 2009, pp341 - 356, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2009

The First World War and German Memory in, editor(s)Heather Jones, Jennifer O'Brien, and Christoph Schmidt-Supprian , Untold War. New Perspectives in First World War Studies, Leiden and Bosten, Brill, 2008, pp385 - 415, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2008

Alan Kramer, Dynamic of Destruction. Culture and Mass Killing in the First World War, Oxford, Oxford University Press, 2007, 434 + xi- Book, 2007 URL

Alan Kramer, The First Wave of International War Crimes Trials: Istanbul and Leipzig, European Review, 14, (4), 2006, p441 - 455 Journal Article, 2006

Italienische Kriegsgefangene im Ersten Weltkrieg in, editor(s)Hermann J.W. Kuprian, Oswald Überegger , Der Erste Weltkrieg im Alpenraum. Erfahrung, Deutung, Erinnerung. La Grande Guerre nell'arco alpino. Esperienze e memoria, Innsbruck, Universitätsverlag Wagner/Provincia Autonoma di Bolzano, 2006, pp247 - 258, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2006

The War of Atrocities. Murderous scares and extreme combat in, editor(s)Alf Lüdtke and Bernd Weisbrod , The No Man's Land of Violence. Extreme Wars in the 20th Century, Göttingen, Wallstein and the Max Planck Institute for Historical Research, 2006, pp11 - 33, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2006

Perché i soldati uccidono i civili. L'esercito tedesco nel 1914 in, editor(s)Bruna Bianchi , La violenza contro la popolazione civile nella Grande Guerra, Milan, Unicopli, 2006, pp87 - 105, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2006

War crimes, in John Merriman and Jay Winter, Europe Since 1914: Encyclopedia of the Age of War and Reconstruction, New York, Charles Scribner's Sons, 2006, pp2671 - 2681, [Alan Kramer] Item in dictionary or encyclopaedia, etc, 2006

Alan Kramer, John Horne, Response to Margaret Lavinia Anderson, German History, 24, 2006, p118 - 121 Journal Article, 2006

'German "Atrocities" and Franco-German Opinion, 1914: the Evidence of German Soldiers' Diaries' in, editor(s)Michael Neiburg , World War I, Aldershot, Ashgate, 2005, pp323 - 355, [Horne J., Kramer A.] Book Chapter, 2005

Alan Kramer and John Horne, Les atrocités allemandes, Paris, Tallandier, 2005, 640pp Book, 2005

Les Belges en Allemagne - De Belgen in Duitsland in, editor(s)Serge Jaumain, Michaël Amara, Benoit Majerus, Antoon Vrints , Une Guerre totale? La Belgique dans la Premère Guerre Mondiale, Brussels, Archives générales du Royaume, 2005, pp199 - 205, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2005

Les Belges en Allemagne - De Belgen in Duitsland in, editor(s)Serge Jaumain, Michaël Amara, Benoit Majerus, Antoon Vrints , Une Guerre totale? La Belgique dans la Premère Guerre Mondiale, Brussels, Archives générales du Royaume, 2005, pp199 - 205, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2005

Alan Kramer and John Horne, Deutsche Kriegsgreuel 1914. Die umstrittene Wahrheit (German edition of German Atrocities 1914), Hamburger Edition, Hamburg, 2004, 741pp Book, 2004

Asymmetrische Wahrnehmung: Besatzer und Besetzte in Hamburg, 1945-1949 [Asymmetric perception: occupiers and occupied in Hamburg, 1945-49] in, editor(s)Angelika Eder, Kristina Vagt , Wir sind auch da!' Über das Leben von und mit Migranten in europäischen Großstädten (Forum Zeitgeschichte, Bd. 14), Hamburg, Verlag Dölling und Galitz, 2003, pp143 - 164, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2003

Kriegsrecht und Kriegsverbrechen in, editor(s)Gerhard Hirschfeld, Gerd Krumeich, Irina Renz , Enzyklopädie des Ersten Weltkriegs, Paderborn, Schöningh, 2003, pp281 - 292, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2003

Versailles, deutsche Kriegsverbrechen und das Auslieferungsbegehren der Alliierten 1919/20 [Versailles, German War Crimes, and the Allied Demand for Extradition] in, editor(s)Wolfram Wette and Gerd R. Ueberschär , Kriegsverbrechen im 20. Jahrhundert (Festschrift für Manfred Messerschmidt), Darmstadt, Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, 2001, pp72 - 84, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2001

Alan Kramer, John Horne, German Atrocities, 1914. A History of Denial, New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 2001, 608 + xvpp Book, 2001

War between soldiers and enemy civilians, 1914-1915 in, editor(s)Roger Chickering and Stig Förster, , Great War, Total War: Combat and mobilization on the Western Front, 1914-1918, Washington, D.C. and Cambridge, German Historical Institute and Cambridge University Press, 2000, pp153 - 168, [Alan Kramer, John Horne] Book Chapter, 2000

Der Umgang mit der Schuld. Die "Schuld im Kriege" und die Republik von Weimar [Coping with Guilt: "Guilt in War" and the Weimar Republic] in, editor(s)Dietrich Papenfuß und Wolfgang Schieder , Deutsche Umbrüche im 20. Jahrhundert, Cologne, Weimar, Vienna, Böhlau, 2000, pp77 - 96, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2000

Wackes at War Alsace - Lorraine and the failure of German national mobilization, 1914-1918' in, editor(s)John Horne , State, society and mobilization in Europe during the First World War, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1997, pp105 - 121, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 1997

Alan Kramer, John Horne, German atrocities and Franco-German opinion, 1914: the evidence of German soldiers' diaries, The Journal of Modern History (Chicago), 66, (1), 1994, p1 - 33 Journal Article, 1994

Les "Atrocités allemandes": mythologie populaire, propagande et manipulation dans l'armée allemande in, editor(s)Jean-Jacques Becker, Jay Winter , Guerres et Cultures 1914-1918, Paris, Armand Colin, 1994, pp147 - 164, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 1994

Alan Kramer, Les "Atrocités allemandes": mythologie populaire, propagande et manipulation dans l'armée allemande, Guerres Mondiales et conflits contemporains (Paris), 171, 1993 Journal Article, 1993

"Greueltaten". Zum Problem der deutschen Kriegsverbrechen in Belgien und Frankreich 1914 ["Atrocities". The Question of German War Crimes in Belgium and France 1914] in, editor(s)Gerhard Hirschfeld, Gerd Krumeich, and Irina Renz , "Keiner fühlt sich hier mehr als Mensch..." Erlebnis und Wirkung des Ersten Weltkriegs, Essen, Klartext, 1993, pp85 - 114, [Alan Kramer(] Book Chapter, 1993

Alan Kramer, The West German Economy 1945-1955, Oxford and New York, Berg Publishers, 1991 Book, 1991

Alan Kramer, Die britische Demontagepolitik am Beispiel Hamburgs, 1945-1950 [British Politics of Dismantling: the case of Hamburg], Hamburg, Verein für Hamburgische Geschichte, 1991 Book, 1991

British dismantling politics, 1945-9: A reassessment in, editor(s)Ian D. Turner , Reconstruction in Post-War Germany. British Occupation Policy and the Western Zones 1945-1955, Oxford, Munich and New York, 1989, pp125 - 154, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 1989

'"Law-abiding Germans"? Social disintegration, crime and the reimposition of order in post-war Western Germany, 1945-9 in, editor(s)Richard J. Evans , The German Underworld. Deviants and Outcasts in German History, London and New York, 1988, pp238 - 261, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 1988

Demontage der Industrie und Wiederaufbau des Hafens: Die Hamburger Wirtschaft im Zeichen der britischen Besatzungspolitik [Dismantling of industry and reconstruction of the harbour: Hamburg's economy under the British occupation] in, editor(s)Jürgen Ellermeyer and Rainer Postel , Stadt und Hafen. Hamburger Beiträge zur Geschichte von Handel und Schiffahrt (Arbeitshefte zur Denkmalpflege in Hamburg Nr. 8), Hamburg, 1986, pp142 - 153, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 1986

Demontage in Hamburg in, editor(s)Josef Foschepoth and Rolf Steininger , Die britische Deutschland- und Besatzungspolitik 1945-1949, Paderborn, 1985, pp265 - 290, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 1985

Non-Peer-Reviewed Publications

"Too early to say?" Centennial perspectives on the First World War in, editor(s)Edgar Wolfrum, Odila Triebel, Cord Arendes, Angela Siebold, Joana Duyster Borredà , European Commemoration: Locating World War I, Stuttgart, Institut für Auslandsbeziehungen, 2016, pp17 - 30, [Alan Kramer] Book Chapter, 2016

Alan Kramer, Review of Sintflut. Die Neuordnung der Welt 1916-1931, by Adam Tooze , Historische Zeitschrift , 203, 2016, 261-265 Review, 2016

Alan Kramer, Review of Der Große Krieg. Die Welt 1914 bis 1918, by Herfried Münkler , Historische Zeitschrift, 300, 2015, p827-830 Review, 2015 DOI

Alan Kramer, Review of With Our Backs to the Wall: Victory and Defeat in 1918, by David Stevenson , English Historical Review, CXXVII , (524), 2012, p216-219 Review, 2012

Alan Kramer, Review of Das symbolische Kapital der Trauer. Nation, Religion und Familie im italienischen Gefallenenkult des Ersten Weltkriegs, by Oliver Janz , English Historical Review, CXXVI, (518), 2011, p218-219 Review, 2011

Alan Kramer, Review of Civilians in a World at War, 1918-1918, by Tammy Proctor , Journal of Military History, 75, (4), 2011, p1322-1323 Review, 2011

Alan Kramer, Review of Kameradschaft: Die Soldaten des nationalsozialistischen Krieges und das 20. Jahrhundert, by Thomas Kühne , The English Historical Review, CXXIV, (506), 2009, p235-238 Review, 2009

Alan Kramer, Review of The Great War and Urban Life in Germany: Freiburg, 1914-1918, by Roger Chickering , H-Soz-Kult, 2007 Review, 2007 URL

Alan Kramer, Review of Die Leipziger Prozesse. Deutsche Kriegsverbrechen und ihre strafrechtliche Verfolgung nach dem Ersten Weltkrieg, by Gerd Hankel , Bulletin of the German Historical Institute London, 27, (1), 2005, p89-99 Review, 2005

Alan Kramer, Review of War Land on the Eastern Front. Culture, National Identity, and German Occupation in World War I, by Vejas Gabriel Liulevicius , German History, 20, (2), 2002, p255-256 Review, 2002 DOI

Research Expertise

Description

History of culture and mentalities, especially of Germany in the era of the First World War (1912-1933) and post-war Germany (1945 to 1950); atrocities in the First World War; comparative history of the laws of war; Belgium in the First World War; Italy in the First World War, the German military, 1870-1933. CURRENT RESEARCH PROJECTS: International history of concentration camps since 1896; Italian prisoners in the First World War; occupations in the First World War; online encyclopedia of the First World War.

Projects

  • Title
    • International history of concentration camps
  • Summary
    • This project is the first transnational comparative investigation of the history of concentration camps. The history of concentration camps in Nazi Germany is now well advanced, with several scholarly histories of the concentration camps from 1933 to 1945 published over the last three decades. The history of the concentration camps of Italian Fascism, long neglected by historians, has recently been discovered as an important theme. The story of the GULag, the camp system in the Soviet Union, has been revitalized by the opening of access to the archives. However, none of the overall histories or histories of individual camps adequately examines their origins and compares their changing function in history. This project therefore is designed to test various hypotheses on the origins of the camps by systematically scrutinizing the scholarly research on the Spanish policy of 'reconcentración' in Cuba in 1896 and the British concentration camps in South Africa to the construction of the Nazi concentration camps and the post-Second World War period, and by conducting original research on the camp system in the belligerent countries of the Great War, the international learning process, the treatment of civilian internees, the development of international law and the prosecution of violations of international humanitarian law in the camps. An examination of the decision-making process that established the extermination camps in 1941 and gave the term its contemporary meaning, is essential, even if the process of genocide is not the main focus of the project. Many historians justifiably see camps as the dark side of modern human civilization. For that reason it will be a central part of the project to explain the system of incarceration: security, exclusion, punishment, economic exploitation, and eradication. First results were published in edited collections in 2011 and 2013.

Keywords

Atrocities & War Crimes in the First World War; German History since 1870; International History of Concentration Camps; International Law & 20th Century Warfare; Origins of Fascism in Italy; Prisoners of War in the First World War; War Crime Trials; War Culture & Mass Killing in the First World War; World War 1

Recognition

Awards and Honours

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Memberships

Fellow of the Royal Historical Society

Fellow of the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation

Fellow of Trinity College Dublin

German History Society (see: http://www.germanhistorysociety.org/)

Arbeitskreis Historische Friedensforschung

Arbeitskreis Militärgeschichte

Society for First World War Studies