TRINITY COLLEGE DUBLIN, FRIDAY 6th & SATURDAY 7th MARCH 2009
Organizers: The Trinity College Dublin Translation Studies Group
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SATURDAY 7 MARCH 2009 - AFTERNOON
Teaching Translation - 1.30 pm, Room 3051
Giuseppe Vatalaro: Cardiff University email@example.com
Teaching Translation: When? How? Why?
In my paper I will try to describe the experiment in translation we are carring out at the department of Italian at Cardiff. This is the second year in which the experiment is taking place. Before this, translation was taught in year one and, more consistently, in year two and four according to the traditional way, that is to say, translation as a grammar exercise (though of course some attention was paid to matters like style and register). With the new experiment we adopted the German Functional Approach to Translation and we focused students' attention on the relationship between source text, brief and target text. The brief plays now the fundamental role in the exercise as students are now working on the principle that for each source text they can produce many completely different target texts according to the different brief on which they are working. Functional translation does not mean 'free translation', but it rather teaches students to think about the translation process and the different strategies that it involves. After an introduction of the theoretical framework, I will present some examples of the exercises we use and I will show what results students achieve, not only as the learning of the language is concerned, but also in respect to their intellectual growth.
Lucía Pintado: University of Limerick firstname.lastname@example.org
Language Students and Pedagogical Translation: How Do They Get Along?
As an interdisciplinary field, pedagogical translation seems to require more in-depth research to guarantee that its implementation is attuned to pedagogical praxis. This paper deals with one of the most forgotten aspects in research into pedagogical translation: namely students.
On the one hand, there are not many empirical studies within the area of pedagogical translation. As a new area of knowledge, we have to look at sources coming from disciplines such as translation studies and language teaching. In both areas we find empirical studies aimed at consolidating theoretical foundations which provide constructs for a more scientific basis. On the other hand, in most cases the students act as mere subjective informants of different values and procedures in the language learning or translating processes. In general they do not have the opportunity to express their perceptions on the subject matter despite the fact that they are directly involved with any outcome in the field.
In this paper I will present the results of a questionnaire which was recently conducted with final year students of Spanish in a third level education context. I will analyse the students' attitude and opinions and assess to what extent they feel that pedagogical translation is beneficial to them. Through their perspective we will be able to look at a different array of judgements and perspectives far from the traditionally limited concept of right or wrong . Furthermore, the data obtained from the research contain significant conclusions that are valuable for general research in the area of pedagogical translation since in a teaching and learning environment the students' perspective can help to inform the establishment of appropriate parameters.
David Parris and Literary Translation MPhil participants: TCD email@example.com
What happens when you translate? What does translation "do" to a text? To get a better idea, we undertook as a group to concentrate the effects of translation by translating and retranslating the text a total of 11 times, in and out of English, including Polish, German, Russian, Italian, French and Chinese. The session will involve a presentation of the text(s), and some provisional observations, and it is hoped lead to a discussion of the conclusions.
Technology and Translation - 3.00 pm, Room 3051
Beverly Adab: Aston University firstname.lastname@example.org
In translation there is no right or wrong – or is there? LSP translation and degrees of being right.
From a functionalist perspective, the question true or false, in the context of translation practice, is one that can only be answered in relation to the intended purpose of the target text and the knowledge and needs of the addressees, as defined in the translation brief.
This paper will address these questions in relation to key questions to be asked when training translators for LSP translation, seeking to develop generic competences which could be applied to range of LSP texts. Examples from authentic texts will be used to illustrate these questions.
Francisca García Luque: Universidad de Málaga email@example.com
Searching for a Right Translation, Sorting Out Translation Problems in/when Subtittling Scientific Documentaries: Translating ‘Crude'
When analysing translation for documentaries, the scholar is aware of the constraints the text is bound to, because of the audiovisual context in which it's supposed to fulfill the communication process. The term ‘constrained translation' (Titford :) reflects the idea that the translator is somehow limited by circumstances which are mainly related to technical issues.
Nevertheless, audiences in general ignore the fact that what they hear is not exactly what they will read in the subtitle. Depending on their knowledge of the original language (that may still be heard) they create some expectations which could be reasonably fulfilled through appropriate translation techniques and a good dose of imagination.
Among the constraints audiovisual translators deal with when subtitling any kind of program, the first one that comes to our minds is the need for reducing the text (in terms of characters, and sometimes even in terms of information) to the space limits of an ordinary subtitle. The ‘loss' of some minimal parts of the original text is generally accepted as a sine qua non condition for the existence of subtitles. But when the nature of the text involved in the translation process is scientific, this ‘loss' of information must be handled carefully, as these texts are terminologically and semantically much more dense than other types of audiovisual texts. And considering also that the main purpose of scientific texts is to communicate objective information. This paper aims to study the different problems a translator may encounter when trying to find a proper and acceptable translation which could be potentially considered by the audience as the ‘right' translation, despite the constant exercise of linguistic compression the text is forced into. The starting point is our own experience translating into Spanish the documentary ‘Crude' about the history of oil. We will go through the different types of problems in order to discuss the possible solutions and the global translation strategy that might be used in such cases.
Minako O'Hagan: DCU firstname.lastname@example.org
Pop culture too cool for translation schools?: Learning how to translate anime and manga from fans and geeks
This paper discusses the increasing prominence of communities of amateur fan translators who translate anime (Japanese animation), manga (Japanese comics) as well as games and circulate them online. Their primary motivation derives from the love of the genre as there are, usually, no monetary rewards involved. Fan activities known as fansubs where fans subtitle anime have captured the interest of scholars in film studies (Nornes, 1999/2004) as well as in audiovisual translation (Díaz-Cintas & Muños Sánchez, 2006; Pérez González, 2006) as a variant form of translation. However, these fan practices are under explored from the point of view of translator training (O'Hagan, 2008). The paper attempts to shed light onto these legally dubious and yet highly productive practices from the point of view of translator training accidentally organised in virtual peer collaboration environments. Placing them in the context of participatory culture (Jenkins et al, 2006) and emerging crowdsourcing trends (Howe, 2008), the author argues that the amateur translation activities have significant implications for translator training and the whole question of ‘professional' translation.
Reference: O'Hagan, M. (2008). ‘Fan Translation Networks: An Accidental Translator Training Environment?' In Kearns, J. (ed). Translator and Interpreter Training: Methods and Debates . London: Continuum, pp. 158-183.
Literature 3 - 1.30 pm, Room 4047
Lorraine Byrne Bodley: NUI Maynooth Lorraine.ByrneBodley@nuim.ie
Reality and Justice: On translating Goethe's Correspondence with Zelter
Anyone engaged in translation, and who has thought about it, knows that a grammatically correct or almost literal translation of any interesting text can easily be unfaithful to it. Every good translation is an interpretation of the original text. A good translation must be, at the same time, close and free. The quest for precision is analogous to the quest for certainty, and both should be viewed with caution by the translator. This is not to suggest that linguistic precision in writing and translation is not something to strive for, but rather that it should not be placed higher than the advancement of the subject.
One may relatively easily find lexical meanings for the words, but it is overridingly important to find the tuning fork that can give the note and pitch of the overall music of an artist's letters. Without some sense of the tenor of the voices, it is impossible to establish the translator's right-of-way into the letters. When writing the first translation into English of Goethe's musical correspondence with Zelter, I was lucky to hear this enabling note straight away, a familiar voice, one that has accompanied me since my years as a doctoral student at University College Dublin, where I developed not only an understanding of Goethe's language, but a fondness for the music and fortitude that characterizes his poetry. Similarly Zelter's deep sense of irony and colloquial German was on my ear from conversations with German friends in Berlin. Consequently when I came to the task of translating these letters, I found the voice of these letters attractively direct even though the narrative method of letters can, at times, be oblique. What I loved in translating their correspondence was a feeling of living inside an indicative mood, in the presence of an understanding that assumes you share an awareness of the perilous nature of life and are yet capable of seeing it steadily and, when necessary, sternly. There is an undeluded quality about Goethe's and Zelter's sense of the world which gives these letters immense emotional credibility and allows both men to make general observations about musical life which are grounded in experience. These letters have the cadence and force of earned wisdom, and their cogency and verity is marked too by the self-consciousness of two artists convinced that they must labour in their endeavours to produce work of lasting value.
Michelle Woods: State University of New York email@example.com
Translation and Love: Milena Jesenská, Willa Muir, Edwin Muir and Franz Kafka
This paper will focus on the question of love and translation through the writings and experiences of two female translators of Franz Kafka's work: Milena Jesenská and Willa Muir. While there has been interest in both Jesenská and Muir (including three biographies of Jesenská - Margarete Buber-Neumann's Kafkas Freundin Milena (1963), Jana Černá's , Adresát Milena Jesensk á ( 1969) and Mary Hockaday's Kafka, Love and Courage (1995) - and a critical monograph on Muir – Aileen Christianson's 2007 Moving in Circles: Willa Muir's Writings ), little attention has been paid to their translatorial work. This paper analyzes why their literary efforts as translators have been sidelined as secondary to those of the two male authors they were in love with (Franz Kafka and Edwin Muir), and whether it could be useful to explore the role of love in the translation process; not only to explore gender issues and the long tradition of the invisibility of the female translator (Simon 1996; von Flotow, 1997), but also to focus on the connections between linguistic exchange, minority identity and love.
Jesenská's affair with Kafka began because of translation (she was first person ever to translate his work) and the paper will focus on the way in which Kafka uses translation, and the exchange of languages (Czech and German), as a trope for seduction in his Letters to Milena . Max Brod burned Jesenská's letters to Kafka; the paper further explores how translation in the Letters becomes an embodied discourse of presence and love in the absence of the physical Jesenská (a Czech living in exile in Vienna), but also how the incomplete correspondence might articulate a more subversive embodiment of Jesenská as a translator, silent but not silenced.
In her memoir, Belonging (1968), Muir connects her love relationship with her husband Edwin Muir to their mutual interest in minority language and its relation to identity (specifically Scots dialect). The paper focuses on the couple's division of labour in the translation process: how it has been read by critics (who favour Edwin Muir's decisive influence); and how Muir herself regarded her role as more than a literal translator of the works. The paper questions whether her influence has been underestimated because she was Muir's wife and whether she was at times complicit with this underestimation, in order to protect her relationship. Finally, the paper analyzes whether her own writing (in Belonging , in her essay ‘On Translation' and in her unpublished novels) can serve to reinvest her real worth in the joint translatorial work.
Magdalena Obrzut and Pawel Zosik : TCD firstname.lastname@example.org , email@example.com
Polish Literature in the Context of the European Canon
The paper presents translation as an indispensable and essential tool in forming and promoting a type of Weltliteratur . It does this by revealing the marginalization of certain literatures within Europe caused by a lack of or unsatisfactory amount of valid representations in translation (primarily into the modern lingua franca English). Ultimately the piece strives to emphasize the urgent need to develop a broader translation tradition encompassing marginalized cultures in an attempt to achieve Weltliteratur.
The paper focuses on the Polish literary tradition and its position of relative obscurity within the ‘European canon'. A comparative statistical survey of the translation of various European literatures (including Polish) into English serves as the springboard for the ensuing discussion. The bare statistical and comparative facts aim at revealing the imbalances and biases, which, perhaps undeliberately, form the underlying structure of contemporary European, or even World Literature.
The paper poses – and seeks to address – questions as: ‘Why is the literature of certain countries within Europe translated much more frequently and prolifically into English than that of others? Does this (and if so then - how?) relate to the distribution of power within the Union/the world? Are cultures within Europe marginalized and what is the image of ‘European culture' abroad? How does this (and does it?) encompass Polish culture? And is it feasible to talk of European Literature? These issues are addressed in the context of Goethe's Weltliteratur, Schleiermacher's holistic notion of translation, Foucault's critical treatment of power and knowledge relations, and minority literature theory.
Literature 4 - 3.00 pm, Room 4047
Mark Raftery-Skehan: TCD firstname.lastname@example.org
Translating the Sonnet as the Interplay of Vertical and Horizontal Axes
This paper sets out to explore how the translation of poetry resists and exceeds the binary and exclusive logic by which nonpoetic or prose translations are said to be faithful or unfaithful, either right or wrong. The work of translation illustrative of the approach to sonnet translation I suggest will be David Scott's translation of Mallarmé's sonnets. The problematic of translating poetry can be said to be the impossibility of simultaneously and faithfully rendering the unit of the form and content of the original. Given the heterogeneous resources available in each language, absolute fidelity to content almost inevitably requires the sacrifice of formal elements (the rhyme words and scheme, for example). A more or less faithful translation of the poem as a work of art irreducible to the functioning of prose, may, however, be possible if we conceive in sonnet translation, beyond being a strictly linguistic exercise, as the translation of an aesthetic of the vertical and horizontal axes of the poem. The vertical axis grasps the rhyme scheme and rhyme words inasmuch as they form the compositional spine of the poem's stanzaic unfolding with which the horizontal lines of the verse-as prosodic units irreducible to the syntactic configurations of prose- intersect. Insofar as the translated sonnet is a translation of the harmony achieved in the vertical and horizontal axes, it can neither be simply right nor simply wrong, but right and wrong to the extent that it achieves an analogous integration of the sonnet's content and its form in a renegotiated harmonisation of the vertical axis and horizontal axes.
Jane Dunnett: Swansea University email@example.com
Importing Anglo-American Detective Novels into 1930s Italy: Scheming Publishers, Manipulative Editors, Culpable Translators and Insatiable Readers.
The 1920s and, increasingly, the 1930s saw large numbers of detective novels being imported into Italy, mainly from Britain and the United States, and translated. Demand grew rapidly and a veritable vogue for crime fiction developed while publishers vied with one another to get hold of bestselling titles. Identified as it was with foreign authors and foreign places, the genre held an exotic appeal for Italian readers who devoured the works of, amongst others, Margery Allingham, Agatha Christie, Rex Stout, Ellery Queen, S. S. Van Dine, and Edgar Wallace, to cite only the most famous of them.
Despite the emergence of home-grown detective novels (the first one dates from 1931), the Italian public continued to show a marked preference for imported novels. Indeed, some publishers, keen to exploit what was proving to be an extremely lucrative trend, responded by producing pseudo-translations which were attributed to authors with suitably Anglo-Saxon sounding names. If crime fiction in general was viewed with suspicion by critics at that time, itwas the translations themselves that came in for especial criticism. Regarded as being of poor quality, they were frequently under fire in the press; moreover, one of the principal arguments against the circulation of crime fiction adduced by the censors could be summed up in the phrase 'bad translations'.
Intent on giving the genre a degree of legitimacy, and hence the respectability that it lacked, Mondadori's editors, for example, intervened in target texts so as to 'improve' them. In what sense were they 'correcting' the texts? And what criteria did they adopt for this? The present paper considers the various ways translations were manipulated to make them conform to the literary and ideological norms of the day in order to guarantee their acceptability within the target culture. It also examines the success or otherwise of a domesticating policy that would appear to run counter to the intrinsic appeal of non-Italian detective novels, and asks how this contradiction was dealt with.
Sabine Strumper-Krobb: UCD firstname.lastname@example.org
‘ A good metaphor for all we do?' — Fictional translators as criminals and detectives
Right across literatures, translator and interpreter figures feature increasingly prominently in contemporary literary texts and films. They often personify issues that can be identified as some of the main concern of contemporary literature.
The paper focuses on fictional translator figures who, either metaphorically or in the actual plot, are associated with crime: they are cast as criminals or detectives (doing right or wrong?), two roles which tie in with the contradicting clichés associated with translators, either as the betrayers, manipulators, or as bridge-builders, neutral mediators and facilitators of communication, the ones who are able to find equivalences and truth. It will be argued that, in their double role as translator and criminal/detective, these figures often contribute to a meta-fictional discourse that is concerned with questions of authenticity, referentiality of language, the boundaries between original and translation, reality and fiction. The crimes they commit (or reveal) are crimes against traditional notions of authorship and originality and carry the works in which they appear beyond narrow genre boundaries.
Translation of Sacred Texts - 1.30 pm, Room 5033
Rim Hassen: University of Warwick email@example.com
When Women Re-translate the Quran: A study of the English Versions
The first English translation of the Quran was published in 1646, since then the Holy book of Islam has been translated and retranslated over thirty times by Sunnis, Shias, Qadianis and Chrisitian orientalists. The differences between the various English renditions of the sacred text attest to the multiple methods and strategies designed to improve, challenge or surpass former versions. What is most significant is that female translators played no part in this ideological battle to ‘accurately' translate the sacred text until 1997, when the first English translation of the Quran by a woman was published. Since then, almost half of the most recent English translations of the Quran have been undertaken by or with the participation of female translators.
This paper aims to discuss the increasing involvement of Muslim women in the translation and retranslation of the Quran into English and their role in recovering and unveiling new meanings from the sacred text. Encouraged by recent historical, linguistic and religious studies led by Muslim female scholars such as Leila Ahmed, Fatima Mernissi and Amina Wadud, women translators such as Amatul Rahman Omar and Laleh Bakhtiar have assumed the task of translating the Quran from a woman's point of view with the aim, not only to challenge the male perspective, but also to unsettle and deconstruct conventional and traditional methods of translating the Holy Scripture of Islam.
Danuta Przepiorkowska: University of Warsaw firstname.lastname@example.org
Right/Wrong Decisions in Choosing Sources of Biblical Quotations in Translated Sermons: A Case Study of Jewish Sermons delivered by an American Rabbi to a Polish-Speaking Congregation
My presentation will use Kristeva's notion of two axes of intertextuality as a starting point for looking at religious texts. I will focus on sermons as a particular genre with embedded intertextual relations, and then look at a case study of sermons prepared by an American rabbi in the English language for a Polish-speaking congregation. The congregation uses a professional translator (rather than anyone from the congregation) to translate those sermons into Polish. As the sermons contain references to the Torah/Old Testament and other texts written in third languages (many in Hebrew), a problem arises as to how to deal with such embedded (implicit and explicit) quotations.
I would like to look at the translator's task, consisting in detecting the intertextual relations in the source text and rendering them in the target text. With quotations from the Torah, the translator may choose from the existing, established Polish translations of the Old Testament (all of them Christian, some contemporary and some older) which have been present in Christian sermons and also in public discourse. Alternatively, official translations used by the Jewish community could be chosen. However, they are difficult to access and archaic (there have been no official, complete Jewish translations of the Torah after World War II).
Using functionalism as the theoretical framework, I would like to discuss those various options available to the translator and provide arguments for why each of them may be right or wrong, considering the purpose of the translation (weekly sermons for a reform Jewish congregation), author's views and the nature of the target audience (with many former Christians or non-believers). This discussion will take into account interviews with the Rabbi and with congregation leaders/members and their opinions on the matter.
Nicholas Williams: email@example.com
‘Can These Bones Live?' Translating the scriptures into Revived Cornish
Cornish, the Celtic language of Cornwall, died out at the end of the eighteenth century, but attempts to revive it began at the beginning of the twentieth century. The revival had considerable success until the 1980s when the movement was split by serious disagreements about the correct orthography. A fairly satisfactory compromise has now been reached and official funding is available for the language.
Nicholas Williams published his Cornish version of Genesis in 1995 and the whole New Testament in 2002. The Holy Bible is a definitive text for any linguistic community and is particularly so for minority languages. This paper will ask what is the best approach to biblical translation into Cornish; it will also give an idea of the resources available to the translator and also mention some of the pitfalls to be avoided.
Translation and Taboo - 3.00 pm, Room 5033
Bart Defrancq: University College Ghent firstname.lastname@example.org
Adding translation to insult: political antagonism as a source of interpersonal change in translation
Untill recently, conversational pragmatics was mainly concerned with describing how speakers attempt to avoid conflict in linguistic interaction. Concepts such as conversational maxims (Grice 1975), politeness and face (Brown & Levinson 1987), intersubjectivity (White 2000) all relate to the idea of harmonious human interaction. Research into conflicting linguistic interaction has mostly carried out against a background of harmonious interaction. Insults have only recently entered the realm of pragmatics, after a long and fairly isolated career in lexicography (Jay 1992 and 1999, Pinker 2008). In translation studies the topic has only been touched upon (Mateo & Yus 2000, Baines 2007). The aim of my paper is to analyse two strikingly different translations of the French insult ‘con' in the Flemish press and to determine what is/are the source(s) of the observed difference. The first case is from December 2007 when the Belgian MP and former minister of Defence André Flahaut called his successor Pieter De Crem ‘un con' in a session of a parliamentary committee. The epithet was translated as ‘klootzak' by most of the Flemish newspapers. The second case is from February 2008 when French President Nicolas Sarkozy replied ‘Casse-toi, pauvre con' to an unfriendly visitor at an agricultural fair near Paris. In that case, ‘con' was translated as ‘sukkelaar'. Both Dutch words are curse words, but they differ greatly with regard to offensiveness, ‘klootzak' being the most unpleasant one, according to most speakers of Dutch. Translation differences such as these can have many sources, which all have in common that they are essentially pragmatic and relate to situational, social, cultural and even political variables. Factors that will be examined are:
semantic meaning: although their illocutionary intention (hurt someone's feelings) dominate the use of insults, they possess a residue of semantic meaning. In the case of body parts, meanings typically vary between lack of common sense, lack of status and lack of social skills, but the exact form-function match varies a lot from one language to another (in French and English, words referring to the anus are used for stupidity, but in Dutch only the male sexual organ seems to have that connotation);
degree of offensiveness: insults differ with respect to the extent to which they hurt people's feelings; some of them may even be used for praising (Mateo & Yus 2000). Languages also differ with respect to how offensive the body part vocabulary is (cf. the regional French ‘biloute' that became famous as a greeting after the movie Les Ch'tis came out in France and Belgium);
frequency of usage: often used insults tend to become less expressive and, therefore, less offensive. Less used or innovative insults can have a comic effect. Even though equivalent words in different languages can have equivalent insulting connotations, their actual usage can differ considerably (cf. the ‘asshole' – ‘trou du cul' pair, whose French member is much less used than the English);
social-physical constraint: insults have different effects according to the context and the individuals who use them. Societies do not tolerate insults to the same extent and tolerate different kinds of insults to different extents. These differences are obviously reflected in the languages they use.
I will argue that although all these factors may contribute to the discrepancy, the determining factor seems to be one which has not received much attention in the literature, i.e. stereotype entrenchment (Bickenbach & McGregor Davies 1996). André Flahaut is a French-speaking politician often depicted in the Flemish press as serving francophone interests only. Blowing up an insult directed against a Flemish politician by a French-speaking politician can be seen as contributing to this stereotype. This ‘wrong' translation confirms that both Flemish and francophone press are indeed contributing to the current political antagonism between both major linguistic communities in Belgium, as claimed by many.
Ilaria Parini: University of Milan email@example.comAs has been shown in several studies (Parini 1998, Pavesi and Malinverno 2000, Pavesi 2005), it is quite the norm in Italian dubbing to attenuate the level of obscenity which often characterises the language spoken in American films. This is particularly true as far as vulgar words and expressions are concerned, which are very often not translated, or are frequently mitigated. According to Galassi (1999), this sort of censorship is sometimes self-imposed by the translators themselves, who, however, act following the instructions of the dubbing and the production companies. Sometimes this sort of censorship is operated not only at the level of the single words (as in the case of insults, exclamations, or intensifiers), but rather at the level of content, namely when in the original dialogues there are references which might be considered as taboo. Explicit sexual references are present in all the screenplays written by Quentin Tarantino, and the analysis of their Italian dubbed versions reveals a lack of homogeneity in the translation strategies adopted. In some cases the translators have opted for censoring the text by omitting the sexual references. In other cases, on the contrary, the references have been maintained, as the translators have translated the original lines almost literally. Interestingly enough, though, this lack of homogeneity in the translational behaviour does not seem to be ascribable to different ideologies on the part of the translators, or on censoring policies imposed by the commissioners. This is proved by the fact that the different behaviours are observable in the very same films. The same translators have sometimes omitted the sexual references in some parts of the film, while in others they have maintained them, showing therefore a basic inconsistency in the translation strategies adopted.
Translation and taboo in audiovisual translation
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Some light editing has been done on these abstracts, but they have not been reduced to a uniform style and length. Our keynote speakers were not asked to supply abstracts. We apologize for any errors in the editing, and for the possible loss of accented characters in some languages.
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