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Postgraduate Lectures - Course PY5003


Lecturer: Cormac McGuinness

  • Why Surface Science; Surface Science and vacuum; fundamentals of vacuum; kinetic theory and gas flow; conductance, pumping speed and throughput; rate of evacuation
  • Pressure measurement: Pirani and thermocouple gauges; Bayard-Alpert ionisation gauge; Penning ionisation gauge; residual gas analysis; important gases
    Pumps: rotary pump; oil diffusion pump; turbo(molecula)r pump; sorption and cryo pumps; sublimation pumps; ion(isation) pumps
  • Chamber design: pumping speed, leaks and outgassing; chamber materials; outgassing rates; welding and surface finish; conflat flanges; swagelok fittings; KF flanges; bakeout facilities
  • Vacuum fittings: bellows concept; valves; linear motion drives; rotary drives; viewport; power, therocouple and cooling feedthroughs
  • Surface structure I: Miller indices; unit meshes; reconstruction; Wood's notation; surface domains; reciprocal lattices
  • Surface structure II: low energy electron diffraction (LEED); LEED apparatus; I-V curves; spot profiles; reflection high enenergy electron diffraction (RHEED); photoelectron diffraction
  • Surface Characterisation I: surface sensitivity of electrons; photoelectron fundamentals; x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS); spectral contributions; quantiative analysis; chemical shift; electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA)
  • Surface Characterisation II: Auger electron spectroscopy (AES); derivative spectrum; scanning Auger microscopy (SAM); ion-etch depth profiling; secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS); dynamic SIMS; raster-lens-gate technique; ion surface scattering (ISS)
  • Ion/electron analysers: retarding Field (LEED) analyser; cylindrical mirror analyser (CMA); concentric hemispherical analyser (CHA); magnetic deflection analyser (MDA); time of flight analyser (TOF); quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMA); ion/electron detectors
  • Scanning probe microscopy: scanning tunneling microscope (STM); basic principles; constant height and current modes; simple models; beyond Bardeen model; atomic force microscopy; other probes
  • Surface preparation: degreasing and pre-etch; abrasion, fracture, cleaving; thermal desorption; ion etching; chemical reaction; gas exposure; evaporation; magnetron sputtering; knudsen cells; quartz crystal monitor
  • Complementary optical probes of surfaces and optical techniques for extracting surface and interface information with a resolution of less than a single atomic layer; epioptics; polarized reflection techniques: reflection anisotropy spectroscopy, spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman scattering, and briefly: optical second harmonic and sum-frequency generation.

Recommended reading:

  • Modern Techniques of Surface Science, T.A. Delchar and D.P. Woodruff, (Cambridge Solid State Science Series, 1994, ISBN 0521414679)
  • A user's guide to vacuum technology, John F. O'Hanlon, 3rd Edition (Hoboken, NJ ; [Great Britain] : Wiley-Interscience, 2003, ISBN 0471270520)
  • Building Scientific Apparatus, John H. Moore, Christopher C. Davis, Michael A. Coplan, Sandra C. Greer, 4th Edition, (Cambridge, UK ; New York : Cambridge University Press, 2009, ISBN 9780511578069).
  • Introduction to scanning tunneling microscopy, C. Julian Chen, 2nd Edition (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2008, ISBN 9780199211500)
  • X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy : an introduction to principles and practices, Paul van der Heide (Wiley-Blackwell, 2011, ISBN 9781118062531)
  • An introduction to synchrotron radiation : techniques and applications, Phil Willmott, (Wiley, 2011, ISBN 9780470745793)

And for further reading:

  • Introduction to surface physics / M. Prutton, (Oxford : Clarendon Press, 1994. ISBN 0198534752 )
  • Surface chemistry / Elaine M. McCash, (Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0198503288)
  • Very high resolution photoelectron spectroscopy / Stefan Hüfner (ed.), (Berlin ; New York : Springer, 2007, ISBN 9783540681304.)
  • An Introduction to Surface Analysis by XPS and AES, John F. Watts, John Wolstenholme, 2nd edition, (Wiley-Blackwell; 2003, ISBN 978-0470847138).